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2000–Entertainer and musician, Steve Allen, dies of a heart attack in Los Angeles, California, at age 78. He was the first host of The Tonight Show, where he was instrumental in innovating the concept of the television talk show. Allen was a pianist and a prolific composer, having penned over 14,000 songs, among them Theme from Picnic and This Could Be the Start of Something Big. He also wrote more than 50 books. He appeared in the films College Confidential, The Benny Goodman Story, and Down Memory Lane.

637–Antioch surrenders to the Muslim forces under Rashidun Caliphate after the Battle of the Iron Bridge.

758–Guangzhou, Guangdong Province in southeastern China, is sacked by Arab and Persian pirates.

1137–The Battle of Rignano takes place between Ranulf of Apulia and Roger II of Sicily. Sergius VII, Duke of Naples, dies on the battlefield.

1218–Emperor Chukyo of Japan is born. Chukyo was enthroned at the age of two following the deposition of his father, the Emperor Juntoku. His reign spanned only months in 1221, and he was not officially listed amongst the emperors until 1870, because of doubts caused by the length of his reign.

1270–The Eighth Crusade and siege of Tunis ends with an agreement between Charles I of Sicily (brother to King Louis IX of France, who had died months earlier) and the sultan of Tunis.

1340–Portuguese and Castilian forces halt a Marinid invasion at the Battle of Rio Salado.

1485–King Henry VII of England is crowned.

1501–A banquet is held by Cesare Borgia in the Papal Palace, with 50 courtesans are in attendance for the entertainment of the guests.

1611–Charles IX of Sweden dies at Nyköping Castle in Sweden. His reign marked the start of the final chapter of both the Reformation and Counter-reformation.

1654–Emperor Go-Komyo of Japan dies of smallpox in Japan, at age 21.

1657–Spanish forces fail to retake Jamaica at the Battle of Ocho Rios, during the Anglo-Spanish War.

1735–John Adams, second President of the United States, is born in Braintree, Province of Massachusetts Bay, British America (present-day Quincy, Massachusetts). He was a lawyer, diplomat, statesman, political theorist, and, as a Founding Father, a leader of the movement for American independence from Great Britain. He was the first Vice President of the United States, under President George Washington.

1748–Martha Jefferson, wife of President Thomas Jefferson, is born Martha Wayles in Charles City, Colony of Virginia, British America. She was the third First Lady of the United States.

1757–Ottoman sultan, Osman III, dies at Topkapi Palace in Constantinople, at age 58.

1806–Believing he is facing a much larger force, Prussian Lieutenant General Friedrich von Romberg, commanding 5,300 men, surrenders the city of Stettin to 800 French soldiers, commanded by General Lassalle.

1811–Sense and Sensibility: A Novel (in three volumes) By a Lady, is published by Thomas Egerton. Jane Austen, who uses small pieces of paper that can easily be slipped under a blotter in the family drawing room if a visitor arrives, takes special pains to hide the fact that her first novel is in print.

1817–The independent government of Venezuela is established by Simón Bolívar.

1831–In Southampton County, Virginia, escaped slave, Nat Turner, is captured and arrested for leading the bloodiest slave rebellion in United States history.

1857–Physician and neurologist, Georges Gilles de la Tourette, is born Georges Albert Edouard Brutus Gilles de la Tourette in Saint-Gervais-les-Trois-Clochers, Vienne, France. He identified Tourette's syndrome, a neurological condition characterized by physical and verbal tics.

1863–Danish Prince Vilhelm arrives in Athens, Greece, to assume his throne as George I, King of the Hellenes.

1864–The Second Schleswig War ends. Denmark renounces all claim to Schleswig, Holstein, and Lauenburg, which come under Prussian and Austrian administration.

1864–Helena, Montana, is founded after four prospectors discover gold at "Last Chance Gulch."

1871–French philosopher and Symbolist poet, Paul Valéry, is born Ambroise Paul Toussaint Jules Valéry in Sete, on the Mediterranean coast of the Hérault. In 1931, he founded the Collège International de Cannes, a private institution teaching French language and civilization. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature in 12 different years.

1880–Old West lawman, and the first Marshal of Tombstone, Arizona Territory, Frederick G. (Fred) White, is shot to death by "Cowboy" gang member, Curly Bill Brocius. A number of the Cowboys had been in town drinking all night, and they were firing their guns in the air when Marshal White demanded they surrender their weapons. Brocius handed his gun to White barrel-first: it is now thought that the gun fired accidentally while White was taking it, hitting him in the groin. Brocius expressed tremendous regret at the killing of Marshal White, as he had come to like him. Following the shooting, Wyatt Earp, took Brocius into custody, protecting him from being lynched. Earp believed that the shooting was an accident, even testifying for Brocius at his murder trial.

1885–Poet, Ezra Pound, is born Ezra Weston Loomis Pound in Hailey, Idaho Territory. He is credited with the development of the Imagism style of poetry, which stressed clarity, precision, and an economy of words. Pound, who could speak nine languages and who was admitted to the University of Pennsylvania at the age of 15, published his first book of poems in 1908, at age 23, after he had been a deck hand on a cattle boat to Europe. While in London, England, he met some of his literary heroes, including Henry James and William Butler Yeats. Pound was also a correspondent for Poetry magazine and discovered and helped mold the work of contemporaries T.S. Eliot, James Joyce, Robert Frost, and Ernest Hemingway. He was arrested on charges of treason in 1945, for making radio broadcasts for the Fascists, and was deemed "insane and mentally unfit for trial." He subsequently spent 12 years in St. Elizabeth's Hospital for the criminally insane. He continued to write, however, and won the Bollington Prize for the unfinished 120-section epic, The Cantos, in 1949, while he was still in the hospital. His best-known works include Ripostes and Hugh Selwyn Mauberley.

1888–The Rudd Concession is granted by King Lobengula of Matabeleland to agents of Cecil Rhodes, led by Charles Rudd.

1893–Bodybuilder, Charles Atlas, is born Angelo Siciliano in Acri, Cosenza, Italy. He is best known as the developer of a bodybuilding method and its associated exercise program that spawned a landmark advertising campaign featuring his name and likeness. It has been described as one of the longest-lasting and most memorable ad campaigns of all time. He took the name "Charles Atlas" after a friend told him that he resembled the statue of Atlas on top of a hotel in Coney Island, New York, and legally changed his name in 1922.

1893–Politician, John Abbott, dies of cancer of the brain in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, at age 72. He was the third Prime Minister of Canada.

1894–Domenico Melegatti obtains a patent for a procedure to be applied in industrially producing pandoro, a traditional Italian sweet yeast bread, most popular around Christmas and New Year.

1896–Actress, Ruth Gordon, is born Ruth Gordon Jones in Quincy, Massachusetts. She began her career performing on Broadway at age 19. Known for her nasal voice and distinctive personality, she gained international recognition and critical acclaim for film roles that continued into her seventies and eighties. She appeared in the films Madame Butterfly, Abe Lincoln in Illinois, Two-FAced Woman, Edge of Darkness, Inside Daisy Clover, Lord Love a Duck, Rosemary's Baby, What Ever Happened to Aunt Alice?, Where's Poppa?, Harold and Maude, The Big Bus, Every Which Way But Loose, My Bodyguard, Any Which Way You Can, and Maxie. She was married to writer and director, Garson Kanin.

1905–Czar Nicholas II of Russia issues the October Manifesto, granting the Russian peoples basic civil liberties and the right to form a duma.

1911–Actress, Ruth (Carol) Hussey, is born in Providence, Rhode Island. She appeared in the films Maisie, The Women, The Philadelphia Story, Susan and God, Tender Comrade, The Uninvited, That’s My Boy, and Stars and Stripes Forever.

1915–Businessman, Verne (Hedges) Winchell, is born in Bloomington, Illinois. He founded Winchell's Donuts. Before starting his lucrative donut franchise, he tried selling jukeboxes and used cars in the 1950s. A friend suggested opening a donut store and Winchell took a $27,000 stake and turned a piece of commercial property he owned into his first store. It wasn't too long before Winchell expanded his operation throughout California. In 1976, according to Business Week magazine, sales at Winchell's nationwide were $99 million.

1915–Politician, Charles Tupper, dies of heart failure in Bexleyheath, England, at age 94. He was the sixth Prime Minister of Canada.

1918–The Ottoman Empire signs an armistice with the Allies, ending World War I in the Middle East.

1920–The Communist Party of Australia is founded in Sydney, Australia.

1923–Actor, Herschel Bernardi, is born in New York, New York. He appeared in the films 1001 Arabian Nights, The Savage Eye, A Cold Wind in August, The George Raft Story, Irma la Douce, Love with the Proper Stranger, and The Front.

1925–John Logie Baird creates Britain's first television transmitter.

1929–The Stuttgart Cable Car is constructed in Stuttgart, Germany.

1930–Jazz trumpeter, Clifford Brown, is born in Wilmington, Delaware. He only recorded for four years before his early death at age 25 in a car accident. Nonetheless, he had a considerable influence on later jazz trumpet players, including Donald Byrd, Lee Morgan, Booker Little, and Freddie Hubbard.

1931–Actor, Dick Gautier, is born Richard Gautier in Los Angeles, California. He is best known for the role of Hymie the Robot in the TV series Get Smart. He was seen in dozens of other TV shows, including Gidget, The Patty Duke Show, Bewitched, The Flying Nun, Love American Style, When Things Were Rotten, The Love Boat, and Charlie’s Angels. He appeared in the films Ensign Pulver, Wild in the Sky, Fun with Dick and Jane, and Billy Jack Goes to Washington.

1932–Film director, Louis (Marie) Malle, is born in Thumeries, Nord, France. Malle worked in both French cinema and in Hollywood, producing both French and English language films. His films include A Very Private Affair, Viva Maria!, The Thief of Paris, Murmur of the Heart, Pretty Baby, Atlantic City, My Dinner with Andre, Crackers, Alamo Bay, Au revoir les enfants, and Damage. He was married to actress, Candice Bergen.

1938–Orson Welles panics a nation into thinking aliens have landed, with his radio broadcast of H.G. Wells’ War of the Worlds on CBS’s Mercury Theater. Many listeners believe its description of a Martian invasion of Earth is actually taking place.

1938–Character actor, Ed Lauter, is born Edward Matthew Lauter Jr. in Long Beach, New York. He appeared in the films Bad Company, Dirty Little Billy, Lolly-Madonna XXX, The Last American Hero, The Longest Yard, Breakheart Pass, How the West Was Won, Cujo, Born on the Fourth of July, Leaving Las Vegas, and Seabiscuit.

1939–Grace Slick, of Jefferson Airplane, is born Grace Barnett Wing in Chicago, Illinois.

1941–President Franklin D. Roosevelt approves $1 billion in Lend-Lease aid to the Allied nations.

1941–One thousand and five hundred Jews from Pidhaytsi (in western Ukraine) are sent by Nazis to the Belzec extermination camp.

1942–Lt. Tony Fasson, Able Seaman Colin Grazier, and canteen assistant Tommy Brown from HMS Petard board U-559, retrieve material that will lead to the decryption of the German Enigma code.

1944–Anne and Margot Frank are deported from Auschwitz to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, where they die from disease the following year, shortly before the end of World War II.

1944–The Martha Graham ballet, Appalachian Spring, with music by Aaron Copland, premieres at the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C., with Graham in a leading role.

1945–Jackie Robinson, of the Kansas City Monarchs, signs a contract for the Brooklyn Dodgers, breaking the baseball color line.

1945–Actor, Henry (Franklin) Winkler, is born in New York, New York. He is best known for the role of “The Fonz” (also called “Fonzie”) on the TV series Happy Days. He appeared in the films The Lords of Flatbush, Katherine, Heroes, The One and Only, Night Shift, The Waterboy, Little Nicky, Holes, and You Don't Mess with the Zohan.

1947–The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which is the foundation of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), is founded.

1947–Jim Messina, guitarist and vocalist for Buffalo Springfield and Poco, is born James Melvin Messina in Maywood, California. He was also half of the duo Loggins and Messina.

1947–Timothy B. Schmidt, bass player for Poco and The Eagles, is born Timothy Bruce Schmit in Oakland, California. Schmit has also worked for decades as a session musician and solo artist.

1950–Pope Pius XII witnesses the "Miracle of the Sun" while at the Vatican. Also known as the “Miracle of Fátima,” this was an event that allegedly occurred above a large crowd who had gathered near Fátima, Portugal, in response to a prophecy made by three shepherd children. The prophecy was that the Virgin Mary (referred to as Our Lady of Fatima), would appear and perform miracles on that date. Newspapers published testimony from reporters and other people who claimed to have witnessed extraordinary solar activity, such as the sun appearing to "dance" or zig-zag in the sky, careen towards the earth, or emit multicolored light and radiant colors. According to these reports, the event lasted approximately 10 minutes.

1953–President Dwight D. Eisenhower formally approves the top secret document, National Security Council Paper No. 162/2, which states that the United States' arsenal of nuclear weapons must be maintained and expanded to counter the communist threat.

1953–Actor, Charles Martin Smith, is born in Van Nuys, California. He appeared in the films The Culpepper Cattle Co., Fuzz, Pat Garrett & Billy the Kid, American Graffiti, Rafferty and the Gold Dust Twins, No Deposit No Return, The Buddy Holly Story, More American Graffiti, Herbie Goes Bananas, Never Cry Wolf, Starman, The Untouchables, I Love Trouble, and Speechless.

1960–Dr. Michael Woodruff performs the first successful kidney transplant in the United Kingdom at the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary.

1961–The Soviet Union detonates a hydrogen bomb over Novaya Zemlya: at 50 megatons of yield, it remains the largest explosive device ever detonated, nuclear or otherwise.

1961–Because of "violations of Vladimir Lenin's precepts," it is decreed that Joseph Stalin's body be removed from its place of honor inside Lenin's tomb and instead be buried near the Kremlin Wall with a plain granite marker.

1965–In the Vietnam War, U.S. Marines repel an intense attack by Viet Cong forces, killing 56 guerrillas near Da Nang.

1965–English model, Jean Shrimpton, causes a global sensation by wearing a daring white mini dress to Derby Day at Flemington Racecourse in Melbourne, Australia.

1967–Brian Jones, of The Rolling Stones, answers charges of drug possession in a court in London, England. The guitarist pleads guilty to possessing marijuana and not guilty to possessing cocaine and Methedrine. He's remanded to Wormwood Scrub Prison until sentencing the following day. He gets nine months behind bars and is released on bail pending an appeal.

1967–Paul McCartney and cameraman, Aubrey Dewar, fly to Nice, France, to film the The Fool on the Hill sequence for Magical Mystery Tour.

1970–In Vietnam, the worst monsoon to hit the area in six years causes severe floods, kills 293 people, leaves 200,000 homeless, and virtually halts the Vietnam War.

1970–Gallery owner, John Dunbar, is granted a divorce from singer, Marianne Faithfull. Mick Jagger pays £200 pounds in court costs following his involvement in the proceedings.

1970–Jim Morrison is sentenced to six months in jail and fined $500 for allegedly exposing himself at a concert in Miami, Florida.

1971–John Lennon’s Imagine LP is #1 on the U.S. Pop charts.

1972–A collision between two commuter trains in Chicago, Illinois, kills 45 people and injures 332 others.

1973–The Bosphorus Bridge in Istanbul, Turkey, is completed, connecting the continents of Europe and Asia over the Bosphorus River for the second time.

1974–The Rumble in the Jungle boxing match between Muhammad Ali and George Foreman takes place in Kinshasa, Zaire. Ali wins by knockout in the 8th round, regaining the title of World Heavyweight Champion and causing Foreman´s first professional defeat.

1975–Prince Juan Carlos becomes Spain's acting head of state, taking over for the country's ailing dictator, Geneneral Francisco Franco.

1976–Chef, Stephanie Izard, is born in Evanston, Illinois. She was the first female winner of the TV cooking competition show Top Chef. Izard is co-owner and executive chef of the award-winning Chicago restaurants Girl and the Goat and Little Goat. She won the James Beard Award for Best Chef of Great Lakes in 2013. Izard has appeared numerous times on Top Chef since her win, as both a guest judge and participant on the spinoff show Top Chef Duels.

1979–Donna Rachele Mussolini, wife of Benito Mussolini, dies in Forli, Italy, at age 89.

1980–El Salvador and Honduras sign a peace treaty to put the border dispute fought over in 1969's Football War before the International Court of Justice.

1981–Businesswoman, Ivanka (Marie) Trump, is born in New York, New York. Her parents are real estate mogul and the 45th President of the United States, Donald Trump, and model, Ivana Trump. She is married to real estate developer, Jared Kushner.

1983–The first democratic elections are held in Argentina, after seven years of military rule.

1985–Space Shuttle Challenger lifts off for mission STS-61-A, its final successful mission.

1987–In Japan, NEC releases the first 16-bit (fourth generation) video game console, the PC Engine, which is later sold in other markets under the name TurboGrafx-16.

1987–Mythologist, scholar, and author, Joseph Campbell, dies from complications of esophageal cancer in Honolulu, Hawaii, at age 83. Campbell's magnum opus is his book, The Hero with a Thousand Faces, in which he discusses his theory of the journey of the archetypal hero found in world mythologies. Since the book's publication, Campbell's theory has been consciously applied by a wide variety of modern writers and artists. His philosophy has been summarized by his own often repeated phrase: "Follow your bliss."

1990–Capitol Records releases a 4-CD 73-song, John Lennon compilation box set. It is issued in commemoration of Lennon’s 50th birthday. Issued only in CD format. Technically, the U.S. release is an import, since Capitol pressed no copies, but instead imported them from Europe.

1990–Engineers constructing the Channel Tunnel connect Britain with the continent of Europe for the first time since the Ice Age, when they link up under the seabed.

1993–The Ulster Defence Association, an Ulster loyalist paramilitary, carry out a mass shooting at a Halloween party in Greysteel, Northern Ireland. Eight civilians are murdered and 13 others are wounded.

1995–The citizens of Quebec narrowly vote (50.58% to 49.42%) in favor of remaining a province of Canada, in their second referendum on national sovereignty.

1997–Screenwriter and producer, Sydney Newman, dies of a heart attack in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. He played a pioneering role in British television drama from the late 1950s to the late 1960s. He was co-creator of Doctor Who.

2000–Entertainer and musician, Steve Allen, dies of a heart attack in Los Angeles, California, at age 78. He was the first host of The Tonight Show, where he was instrumental in innovating the concept of the television talk show. Allen was a pianist and a prolific composer, having penned over 14,000 songs, among them Theme from Picnic and This Could Be the Start of Something Big. He also wrote more than 50 books. He appeared in the films College Confidential, The Benny Goodman Story, and Down Memory Lane.

2002–Jam Master Jay, of Run–D.M.C., dies from a gunshot wound in Jamaica, Queens, New York, at age 37. He was murdered by an unknown assailant. During the 1980s, Run-D.M.C. became the biggest hip-hop group and they are credited with breaking hip-hop into mainstream music.

2005–The rebuilt Dresden Frauenkirche is reconsecrated after a 13-year rebuilding project. It had been destroyed in the firebombing of Dresden during World War II.

2007–Singer and actor, Robert Goulet, dies of pulmonary fibrosis in Los Angeles, California, at age 73. The dark, handsome, blue-eyed newcomer, with a uniquely resonant and stirring baritone voice, redefined the interpretation of the romantic ballad, and forever changed the sound on Broadway. He performed on the stage in Camelot, Carousel, The Pajama Game, South Pacific, Bells Are Ringing, and Kiss Me Kate. He appeared in the films Honeymoon Hotel, I’d Rather Be Rich, Atlantic City, Beetlejuice, Scrooged, and Mr. Wrong.

2013–A bus fuel tank catches fire in Mahabubnagar, India, killing 45 people.

2013–Super-centenarian, Ralph Tarrant, dies in Sheffield, England, at age 110 (and 115 days).

2014–Sweden becomes the first European Union member state to officially recognize the State of Palestine.

2015–Sixty-four people are killed and more than 147 others are injured after a fire in a nightclub in Bucharest, Romanian.

2015–Actor, Al Molinaro, dies from complications from a gallbladder infection in Glendale, California, at age 96. He is best known for the roles of Al Delvecchio on the sitcoms Happy Days and Joanie Loves Chachi, and Murray Greshler on the sitcom The Odd Couple.

2016–Canadian Prime Minister, Justin Trudeau, and EU officials sign the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA).

2016–A 6.6 earthquake occurs in central Italy, southeast of Perugia. Many buildings are destroyed, including the 14th-century Basilica of St. Benedict in the town of Norcia.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: John Adams; Helena, Montana; Erza Pound; Ruth Hussey; Louis Malle; Henry Winkler; John Dunbar and Marainne Faithfull; Stephanie Izard; a John Lennon CD box set; and Robert Goulet.

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