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2006–Country singer, Freddie Fender, dies of lung cancer in Corpus Christi, Texas, at age 69. On March 13, 2001, Fender was erroneously reported to be dead by Billboard magazine. He laughed off the the mistake. He had hits with Before the Next Teardrop Falls and Wasted Days and Wasted Nights. He was also a part of the group The Texas Tornadoes.

BC 99–Poet and philosopher, Lucretius, is born. His only known work is the didactic philosophical poem, “De rerum natura,” about the tenets and philosophy of Epicureanism, which is usually translated into English as “On the Nature of Things.” Lucretius has been credited with originating the concept of the three-age system that was formalised from 1834, by C.J. Thomsen.

BC 70–Poet, Virgil, is born near Mantua, Italy. His father was a common laborer, but one whose industriousness and intelligence. The boy was shy and of fragile health, and he stammered, but he could write. He wrote The Eclogues, all about shepherds and idealized romance, and the Georgics, about farming, horticulture, bee-keeping, and raising cattle. Then he wrote his masterpiece, The Aeneid, modeled after The Iliad and The Odyssey of Homer, 10,000 lines on the founding of Rome by Aeneas. Virgil worked on the poem for 11 years, dying with it still unfinished, at age 51, and leaving instructions for it to be burned. The Emperor Augustus countermanded and it appeared, edited, two years later.

1066–Edgar the Etheling is proclaimed King of England, but is never crowned.

1173–Petronilla of Aragon dies in Barcelona, Spain, at age 37.

1211–In the Battle of the Rhyndacus, Latin Emperor Henry of Flanders defeats Nicaean Emperor Theodore I Laskaris.

1218–Mongol ruler, Hulagu Khan, is born. He conquered much of Western Asia. Hulagu's army greatly expanded the southwestern portion of the Mongol Empire, founding the Ilkhanate of Persia, a precursor to the eventual Safavid Dynasty, and then the modern state of Iran.

1265–Temür Khan, Emperor Chengzong of Yuan, is born in China. Apart from being Emperor of China, he is considered the sixth Great Khan of the Mongol Empire or Mongols.

1290–Anna of Bohemia is born in Bohemia, Czech Republic. She was the eldest surviving daughter of Wenceslaus II of Bohemia and Poland and his first wife, Judith of Habsburg.

1389–Pope Urban VI dies in Rome, Papal States, at age 71.

1529–The Siege of Vienna ends as the Austrians rout the invading Turks, turning the tide against almost a century of unchecked conquest throughout eastern and central Europe by the Ottoman Empire.

1582–Pope Gregory XIII implements the Gregorian calendar. In Italy, Poland, Portugal, and Spain, October 4th of this year is followed directly by October 15th.

1764–Edward Gibbon observes a group of friars singing in the ruined Temple of Jupiter in Rome, Italy, which inspires him to begin work on The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.

1783–Jean Francois Pilatre de Rozier goes into the air in a tethered balloon in Paris, France. This is the first ever ascent in a hot air balloon.

1793–Queen Marie Antoinette of France is tried and convicted in a swift, pre-determined trial in the Palais de Justice in Paris, France, and condemned to death the following day.

1815–Napoleon I of France begins his exile on Saint Helena in the Atlantic Ocean.

1822–In Italy, Lord Byron, working with his editor Leigh Hunt, publishes the only issue of his periodical The Liberal, which carries as its only item Byron's satire, The Vision of Judgment, against Poet Laureate, Robert Southey.

1844–Philosopher, Friedrich (Wilhelm) Nietzsche, is born in Röcken (near Lützen), Province of Saxony, Kingdom of Prussia. Nietzsche wrote Thus Spake Zarathustra, in which the hero declares that Christianity is decadent because God is dead, and so man must find a purpose for his own existence in a world that is indifferent to him; and this purpose is domination and mastery of one's self, controlling one's passions, achieving personal style, and molding one's own character, thus releasing a flood of creative energy.

1863–The first submarine to sink a ship, sinks during a test, killing its inventor, Horace L. Hunley.

1864–The Battle of Glasgow is fought, resulting in the surrender of Glasgow, Missouri, and its Union garrison, to the Confederacy.

1878–The Edison Electric Light Company is incorporated.

1888–The "From Hell" letter, allegedly sent by Jack the Ripper, is received by investigators.

1892–The U.S. government convinces the Crow Indians to give up 1.8 million acres of their reservation for 50 cents per acre. Then by Presidential proclamation, the land in the mountainous area of western Montana is opened to settlers.

1893–Carol II of Romania is born Carol Caraiman in Sinaia, Romania.

1900–Film producer and director, Mervyn LeRoy, is born in San Francisco, California. His films include Little Caesar, Three on a Match, Tugboat Annie, Anthony Adverse, The Wizard of Oz, Waterloo Bridge, Random Harvest, Madame Curie, Little Women, East Side West Side, Million Dollar Mermaid, Latin Lovers, Mister Roberts, The Bad Seed, Toward the Unknown, No Time for Sergeants, Home Before Dark, The FBI Story, The Devil at 4 O'Clock, Gypsy, Mary Mary, and Moment to Moment.

1900–Super-centenarian, Anna Stoehr, is born in Iowa. She would live to the age of 114 (and 69 days). In the last year of her life, she opened a Facebook account, but could not register with a birth year before 1905: to create the account she had to state an age of 99. She complained to the social media website, and they sent her 114 flowers for her 114th birthday.

1904–The Russian Baltic Fleet leaves Reval, Estonia, for Port Arthur during the Russo-Japanese War.

1906–Publisher, Alicia Patterson, is born in Libertyville, Illinois. She co-founded Newsday, which became a respected and Pulitzer Prize-winning newspaper. Her father was Joseph Medill Patterson, the founder of the New York Daily News, and her great-grandfather was Joseph Medill, owner of The Chicago Tribune.

1908–Economist, John Kenneth Galbraith, is born in Iona Station, Ontario, Canada. He was a leading proponent of 20th-century American liberalism. His books on economic topics were bestsellers from the 1950s through the 2000s.

1910–Airship America is launched from New Jersey in the first attempt to cross the Atlantic by a powered aircraft.

1914–ASCAP (American Society of Composers, Authors & Publishers) is founded.

1917–At Vincennes, outside Paris, France, Dutch dancer, Mata Hari, is executed by firing squad for spying for the German Empire during World War I.

1920–Writer, Mario (Gianluigi) Puzo, is born in Manhattan, New York. He is best known for his novel The Godfather.

1923–The German Rentenmark is introduced in Germany to counter hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic.

1926–Philosopher, Michel Foucault, is born Paul-Michel Foucault in Poitiers, France. Foucault's theories primarily address the relationship between power and knowledge, and how they are used as a form of social control through societal institutions. Though often cited as a post-structuralist and post-modernist, Foucault rejected these labels, preferring to present his thought as a critical history of modernity. His thought has influenced academics, especially those working in sociology, cultural studies, literary theory, and critical theory.

1926–Actress, (Elizabeth) Jean Peters, is born in East Canton, Ohio. She appeared in the films Captain from Castile, It Happens Every Spring, Viva Zapata!, O. Henry’s Full House, Niagra, Pickup on South Street, A Blueprint for Murder, and Three Coins in the Fountain. She was married to reclusive billionaire, Howard Hughes.

1928–The airship, Graf Zeppelin, completes its first trans-Atlantic flight, landing at Lakehurst, New Jersey.

1932–Tata Airlines (later to become Air India) makes its first flight.

1934–The Soviet Republic of China collapses when Chiang Kai-shek's National Revolutionary Army successfully encircles Ruijin, forcing the fleeing Communists to begin the Long March.

1937–To Have and Have Not by Ernest Hemingway is published.

1937–Singer, Barry McGuire, is born in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. He had a big hit with Eve of Destruction.

1939–The New York Municipal Airport (later renamed LaGuardia Airport) is dedicated.

1940–The President of Catalonia, Lluís Companys, is executed by the Spanish dictatorship of Francisco Franco, making him the only European president to have been executed.

1942–Don Stevenson, drummer for Moby Grape, is born in Seattle, Washington.

1943–Actress and director, (Carole) Penny Marshall, is born in the Bronx, New York. She is best known for the role of Laverne DeFazio on the sitcoms Happy Days and Laverne & Shirley. She appeared the films How Sweet It Is!, Where’s Poppa?, 1941, Movers & Shakers, Hocus Pocus, and Get Shorty. As a director, her films include Jumpin’ Jack Flash, Big, Awakenings, A League of Their Own, The Preacher’s Wife, and Riding in Cars with Boys. Her brother was television producer, Garry Marshall. She was married to actor, Rob Reiner.

1944–The Arrow Cross Party (very similar to Hitler's Nazi party) takes power in Hungary.

1945–Pierre Laval, Prime Minister of France (1931-1932 and 1935-1936), dies from execution by firing squad in Fresnes, France, at age 62. After the liberation of France in 1944, Laval was arrested by the French government under General Charles de Gaulle. In what some historians consider a flawed trial, Laval was found guilty of high treason, and after a thwarted suicide attempt, he was executed.

1946–Richard (Lynn) Carpenter, of The Carpenters, is born in New Haven, Connecticut.

1951–Mexican chemist, Luis E. Miramontes, conducts the very last step of the first synthesis of norethisterone, the progestin that would later be used in one of the first three oral contraceptives.

1951–The sitcom, I Love Lucy, debuts on CBS-TV.

1953–British nuclear test, Totem 1, is detonated at Emu Field, South Australia.

1953–Tito Jackson, of The Jackson 5, is born Toriano Adaryll Jackson in Geary, Indiana.

1954–Hurricane Hazel devastates the eastern seaboard of North America, killing 95 people and causing massive floods as far north as Toronto, Canada.

1955–ABC-TV begins broadcasting performances from the “Grand Ole Opry” in Nashville, Tennessee.

1955–Elvis Presley plays a show in Lubbock, Texas, where Buddy Holly opens for him.

1956–Fortran, the first modern computer language, is shared with the coding community for the first time.

1959–Celebrity chef, restaurateur, and cookbook author, Emeril (John) Lagasse, is born in Fall River, Massachusetts. He is best known for his cooking shows Emeril Live and Essence of Emeril. Lagasse's restaurants, television appearances, and line of food products, knives, and cookware generate approximately $150 million dollars in revenue each year. Lagasse is a James Beard Foundation Award winner.

1960–In a small recording studio, “the Akustik,” in Hamburg, Germany, The Beatles (minus Pete Best) and two members of Rory Storm’s Hurricanes (Ringo Starr and Lou “Wally” Walters), record a version of George Gershwin’s Summertime, which is cut onto a 78-rpm disc. This is the first session that includes John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison, and Ringo Starr working together. Nine discs are cut, but only one is known to have survived.

1964–Lyricist and composer, Cole Porter, dies of kidney failure in Santa Monica, California, at age 73. A classically trained pianist, he was drawn towards musical theatre. After a slow start, he began to achieve success in the 1920s, and by the 1930s, he was one of the major songwriters for the Broadway musical stage. Unlike many successful Broadway composers, Porter wrote the lyrics, as well as the music, for his songs. His work includes Night and Day, Begin the Beguine, I Get a Kick Out of You, I've Got You Under My Skin, My Heart Belongs to Daddy, You're the Top, In the Still of the Night, and True Love.

1965–The Catholic Worker Movement stages an anti-war rally in Manhattan, New York, including a public burning of a draft card. It is the first such act to result in arrest under a new amendment to the Selective Service Act.

1965–The Coffee Gallery in San Francisco, California, opens with a performance by the Great Society, featuring siblings Darby, Jerry, and Grace Slick.

1965–At San Francisco State College, Country Joe & the Fish perform at a Vietnam Day Committee Teach-In.

1966–The Black Panther Party is created by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale.

1966–Former teen idol, Rick Nelson, performs at an oldies show at Madison Square Garden in New York City, only to be booed when he debuts some new material. He later writes the hit song Garden Party about the experience.

1966–Jefferson Airplane singer, Signe Anderson, makes her last appearance with the band at the Fillmore in San Francisco, California, before quitting the group to have a baby. She is replaced the next day by Grace Slick.

1968–Led Zeppelin perform their first show under that name at Surrey University in England. The band was formerly known as the New Yardbirds before the Who's Keith Moon suggested the band would "go down like a lead zeppelin."

1969–Bluesman, Howlin' Wolf, suffers a heart attack.

1969–Widespread demonstrations against the Vietnam War take place all across America, on what is known as “Moratorium Day.”

1970–Thirty-five construction workers are killed when a section of the new West Gate Bridge collapses in Melbourne, Australia.

1973–The U.S. Supreme Court votes not to review a 1971 FCC directive that broadcasters ban songs with drug-oriented lyrics. Only two justices disagree with the final vote, arguing that according to the First Amendment, the government should not require stations to censor music.

1973–Tomorrow, a late-night interview program hosted by Tom Snyder, debuts on NBC-TV.

1976–Italian mob boss, Carlo Gambino, dies of a heart attack in Massapequa, New York, at age 74.

1979–The building of the Times of Malta, the residence of opposition leader, Eddie Fenech Adami (and several Nationalist Party clubs), are ransacked and destroyed by supporters of the Malta Labour Party.

1979–John Lennon and Yoko Ono contribute $1,000 to a fund to buy bulletproof vests for New York City police officers.

1984–Julian Lennon releases his debut album Valotte.

1989–Wayne Gretzky becomes the all-time leading points scorer in the National Hockey League (NHL).

1990–Soviet Union leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to lessen Cold War tensions and open up his nation.

1991–The "Oh-My-God particle," an ultra-high-energy cosmic ray measured at 40,000,000 times that of the highest energy protons produced in a particle accelerator, is observed at the University of Utah HiRes observatory in Dugway Proving Ground, Utah.

1995–Marco Campos is killed in an accident in an International Formula 3000 race at the Circuit de Nevers Magny-Cours circuit, making him the only driver ever killed in the International Formula 3000 series.

1997–The first supersonic land speed record is set by Andy Green in ThrustSSC (United Kingdom), 50 years and one day after Chuck Yeager first broke the sound barrier in the Earth's atmosphere.

1997–The Cassini probe launches from Cape Canaveral on its way to Saturn.

2000–Journalist and critic, Vincent Canby, dies of cancer in Manhattan, New York, at age 76. He became the chief film critic for The New York Times in 1969, and reviewed more than 1,000 films during his tenure there.

2001–NASA's Galileo spacecraft passes within 112 miles of Jupiter's moon, Io.

2003–China launches Shenzhou 5, its first manned space mission.

2003–The Staten Island Ferry, MV Andrew J. Barberi, runs into a pier at the St. George Ferry Terminal in Staten Island, killing 11 people and injuring 43 others.

2005–A riot breaks out in Toledo, Ohio, during a National Socialist/Neo-Nazi protest. Over 100 people are arrested.

2005–Prince Christian of Denmark is born Christian Valdemar Henri John in Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. He is second in the Danish line of succession, after his father, Crown Prince Frederik.

2006–A 6.7 earthquake rocks Hawaii, causing property damage, injuries, landslides, power outages, and the closure of Honolulu International Airport.

2007–Seventeen activists in New Zealand are arrested in the country's first post-9/11 anti-terrorism raids.

2008–The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes down 733.08 points, or 7.87%, the second worst day in the Dow's history based on a percentage drop.

2008–Actress and singer, Edie Adams, dies of cancer in Los Angeles, California, at age 81. She worked regularly on television and was seen on the shows The Ernie Kovacs Show, The Garry Moore Show, Lucy-Desi Comedy Hour, and As the World Turns. She appeared in the films The Apartment, Lover Come Back, Under the Yum Yum Tree, Love with the Proper Stranger, The Best Man, Made in Paris, and The Oscar.

2008–Game show host and television announcer, Jack Narz, dies from complications of a stroke in Los Angeles, California, at age 85.

2011–Global protests break out in 950 cities in 82 countries. A protest was first called for by the Spanish Plataforma ¡Democracia Real YA! in May 2011, and was endorsed by people assemblies across the world. Reasons to protest were varied, but mainly targeted growing economic inequality, corporate influence over government and international institutions, and the lack of truly democratic institutions allowing direct public participation at all levels, local to global.

2013–A 7.2 earthquake strikes the Philippines, killing more than 215 people.

2015–The earliest known draft of the King James Bible, regarded as the most widely read work in English, is unearthed among ancient papers lodged in a Cambridge college. American scholar, Jeffrey Miller, says it will help fill in gaps in understanding how the Bible, published in 1611, came to be. The King James Bible was the work of 47 translators working in teams in London, Oxfordm and Cambridge, England. They had been charged by King James I to produce an authorized version of the Bible that would support the Church of England over the Puritan influence in earlier texts.

2015–The U.S. Government announces that Social Security recipients will not receive a cost of living increase for 2016. According to The Wall Street Journal, benefits had increased an average of 2% annually since 2010.

2016–A wildlife sanctuary for rescued elephants opens in Brazil.

2016–Google introduces a so-called "fact checking" feature on its news aggregate service to combat alleged political bias.

2016–The Obama administration agrees to an international limit on the use of hydrofluorocarbon gases in refrigeration and air conditioning.

2016–Police in China detain 75 people in connection with a service that determined the female gender of unborn babies for the purpose of abortion. Authorities say that at least 300 people were involved in the illegal service in the eastern Chinese province of Zhejiang. Expectant parents wanting male children smuggled fetal blood samples to Hong Kong for gender testing. China ended its one-child policy in 2015.

2016–Turkish-backed rebels advance on the symbolic ISIL-controlled town of Dabiq, in northern Syria. ISIL believes Dabiq is the location where an apocalyptic battle will take place shortly before the end of the world.

2016–A mass shooting in Los Angeles, California, leaves three people dead and 12 others wounded.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Virgil; Frederich Nietzsche; Alicia Patterson; Barry McGuire; Emeril Lagasse; an ad for an "oldies show" at Madison Square Garden; Tom Snyder on the Tomorrow show; Prince Christian of Denmark; Edie Adams; and the King James Bible.

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