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1975–The late-night comedy show, Saturday Night Live, makes its debut with George Carlin as the first guest host. The first season cast is: Chevy Chase, John Belushi, Dan Ackroyd, Gilda Radner, Jane Curtin, and the voice of Don Pardo.

1138–A massive earthquake strikes Aleppo, Syria.

1142–A peace treaty between the Jin dynasty and Southern Song dynasty is formally ratified when a Jin envoy visits the Song court during the Jin-Song wars.

1303–Pope Boniface VIII dies of a violent fever in Rome, Papal States, at age 73.

1311–The Ordinances of 1311 are published, imposing a series of regulations upon King Edward II of England by the peerage and clergy.

1347–Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor, dies from a stroke suffered during a bear hunt in Puch, near Fürstenfeldbruck, at age 65.

1531–Huldrych Zwingli is killed in battle with the Roman Catholic cantons of Switzerland.

1542–Renaissance English poet, Sir Thomas Wyatt, dies. He, along with Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, introduced the Petrarchan sonnet into English.

1582–Due to the adoption of the Gregorian calendar, this day does not exist in this year in Italy, Poland, Portugal, and Spain.

1614–Adriaen Block and 12 Amsterdam merchants petition the States General for exclusive trading rights in the New Netherland colony.

1634–The Burchardi flood kills around 15,000 men in North Friesland, Denmark, and Germany.

1649–After a 10-day siege, English New Model Army troops (under Oliver Cromwell) stormed the town of Wexford, killing over 2,000 Irish Confederate troops and 1,500 civilians.

1671–Frederick IV of Denmark is born at Copenhagen Castle in Copenhagen, Denmark.

1727–George II and Caroline of Ansbach are crowned King and Queen of Great Britain.

1767–Surveying for the Mason-Dixon line, separating Maryland from Pennsylvania, is completed.

1776–During the American Revolutionary War, on Lake Champlain a fleet of American boats is defeated by the Royal Navy, but delays the British advance until 1777.

1797–The Battle of Camperdown, a Naval battle between Royal Navy and Royal Netherlands Navy takes place during the French Revolutionary Wars.

1809–Along the Natchez Trace in Tennessee, explorer Meriwether Lewis dies under mysterious circumstances at an inn called Grinder's Stand in Hohenwald, Tennessee, at age 35. He dies of multiple gunshot wounds in what was either a murder or suicide.

1811–Inventor John Stevens' boat, the Juliana, begins operation as the first steam-powered ferry with service between New York and Hoboken, New Jersey.

1814–Jean-Baptiste Lamy is born in Lempdes, Puy-de-Dôme, France. He served as the first Archbishop of Santa Fe, New Mexico. Willa Cather's novel, Death Comes for the Archbishop, is based on his life and career.

1844–Ketchup and pickle mogul, H.J. Heinz, is born Henry John Heinz in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

1852–The University of Sydney, Australia's oldest university, is inaugurated.

1865–Paul Bogle leads hundreds of black men and women in a march in Jamaica, starting the Morant Bay rebellion.

1872–Harlan Fiske Stone, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court (1941-1946), is born in Chesterfield, New Hampshire.

1881–Roll film for cameras is patented by D.H. Houston of Cambria, Wisconsin.

1884–(Anna) Eleanor Roosevelt, the 39th First Lady of the United States, is born in New York, New York. President Harry S. Truman later called her the "First Lady of the World," in tribute to her human rights and diplomatic achievements.

1890–The Daughters of the American Revolution is founded in Washington, D.C.

1899–In South Africa, a war erupts between the United Kingdom and the Boers of the Transvaal and Orange Free State.

1899–The Western League is renamed the American League of Professional Baseball Clubs (AL). The Western League is a minor league based in the Great Lakes states, which eventually aspired to major league status.

1905–Real estate entrepreneur, Fred Trump, is born Frederick Christ Trump in the Bronx, New York. During World War II, Trump built barracks and garden apartments for U.S. Navy personnel near major shipyards along the East Coast, including Chester, Pennsylvania, Newport News, Virginia, and Norfolk, Virginia. After the war he expanded into middle-income housing for the families of returning veterans, building Shore Haven in Bensonhurst in 1949, and Beach Haven near Coney Island in 1950 (a total of 2,700 apartments). In 1963 and 1964, he built Trump Village, an apartment complex in Coney Island, for $70 million. His son is the 45th President of the United States, Donald Trump.

1906–The San Francisco Public School Board sparks a diplomatic crisis between the United States and Japan by ordering Japanese students to be taught in racially segregated schools.

1910–Former president, Theodore Roosevelt, becomes the first U.S. president to fly in an airplane. He flew for four minutes with Arch Hoxsey in a plane built by the Wright brothers at Kinloch Field (Lambert-St. Louis International Airport), St. Louis, Missouri.

1912–The Greek Army liberates the city of Kozani.

1916–Otto of Bavaria dies unexpectedly from an obstruction of the bowel at Fürstenried Palace in Munich, Germany, at age 68. He was King of Bavaria from 1886 to 1913. However, he never actively reigned due to severe mental illness. His uncle, Luitpold, and cousin, Ludwig, served as regents.

1918–A 7.1 earthquake shakes Puerto Rico, killing 76 to 116 people. A destructive tsunami contributes to the damage and loss of life.

1925–Writer, Elmore Leonard, is born Elmore John Leonard, Jr. in New Orleans, Louisiana. Among his best-known works are Hombre, The Moonshine War, Mr. Majestyk, 52 Pick-Up, Stick, Get Shorty, Rum Punch, and Out of Sight. His writings also include short stories that became the films The 3:10 to Yuma and The Tall T.

1927–Princess Joséphine Charlotte of Belgium is born Joséphine Charlotte Ingeborg Elisabeth Maria Josepha at the Royal Palace of Brussels in Brussels, Belgium. She was the first child of Leopold III of Belgium, and sister of the late King Baudouin of Belgium and King Albert II of Belgium. She was the first cousin of King Harald V of Norway, Princess Astrid of Norway, and Princess Ragnhild of Norway.

1929–J.C. Penney opens store #1252 in Milford, Delaware, making it a nationwide company with stores in all 48 U.S. states.

1932–Country singer, Dottie West, is born Dorothy Marie Marsh in McMinnville, Tennessee. In the 1960s, West was one of the few female country singers working in what was then a male-dominated industry, influencing other female country singers like Lynn Anderson, Crystal Gayle, Barbara Mandrell, Dolly Parton, and Tammy Wynette. Throughout the 1960s, West had “Top 10” and “Top 20” hits on the country music charts.

1935–Businessman, Dan Evins, is born Danny Wood Evans in Smithville, Tennessee. He founded the Cracker Barrel Old Country Store, a Southern-themed restaurant chain, in 1969. As of January 2012, Cracker Barrel had more than 67,000 employees working in more than 600 restaurants in 42 U.S. states.

1939–Albert Einstein and other U.S scientists inform President Franklin Roosevelt of the possibilities of developing an atomic bomb.

1941–The National Liberation War begins in Macedonia.

1942–During World War II, on the northwest coast of Guadalcanal, U.S. Navy ships intercept and defeat a Japanese fleet on their way to reinforce troops on the island.

1944–Tuvan People's Republic, formerly Tannu Tuva, is annexed by the USSR.

1946–The first mobile long-distance car-to-car telephone conversation is made possible.

1946–Pop-soul singer, Daryl Hall, is born Daryl Franklin Hohl in Pottstown, Pennsylvania. He is best known as the co-founder and lead vocalist of Hall & Oates (with guitarist-songwriter John Oates). The duo’s hit include Sara Smile, She’s Gone, Rich Girl, Kiss on My List, Private Eyes, I Can't Go for That (No Can Do), Maneater, Out of Touch, One on One, Family Man, You Make My Dreams, Say It Isn't So, and Method of Modern Love. Starting in 2007, Daryl Hall has hosted the online show/webcast, Live from Daryl's House, which features live music acts in a podcast/videocast from his home in Millerton, New York. The show can also be seen on the satellite channel Palladia.

1950–The first typesetting machine is introduced to dispense with metal type for printing.

1950–CBS's mechanical color television system is the first to be licensed for broadcast by the U.S. Federal Communications Commission.

1954–The Viet Minh take control of North Vietnam.

1957–M.I.T. scientists calculate Sputnik 1's booster rocket's orbit.

1958–NASA launches the lunar probe Pioneer 1: the probe falls back to Earth and burns up.

1957–Actress, writer, and comedienne, Dawn Roma French, is born in Holyhead, Anglesey, Wales. She is best known for her work in the comedy sketch show French and Saunders (with her comedy partner Jennifer Saunders), and the role of Geraldine Granger on the sitcom The Vicar of Dibley.

1961–Chico Marx, the piano-playing member of the Marx Brothers, dies of arteriosclerosis in Hollywood, California, at age 74. He was the eldest of the brothers and the first to die.

1962–Pope John XXIII convenes the first ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church in 92 years.

1963–Surrealist poet and novelist, Jean Cocteau, dies of a heart attack in Milly-la-Foret, France, at age 74.

1963–Chanteuse, Edith Piaf, dies after years of ill health at her villa in Plascassier (Grasse), on the French Riviera, at age 47. Her last words were "Every damn thing you do in this life, you have to pay for." Her funeral procession drew tens of thousands of mourners onto the streets of Paris, France, and the ceremony at the cemetery was attended by more than 100,000 fans. During her career she sang about factory girls, faithless lovers, lost dreams, and small hopes, in a throaty voice that never failed to move audiences. Her signature songs were La Vie en Rose and Non, Je Regrette Rien (No, I Regret Nothing).

1965–Musician, Gerry Marsden, marries Pauline Behan at St. Mary’s Church in Woolton, Liverpool, England.

1965–Documentary photographer, Dorothea Lange, dies of esophageal cancer in San Francisco, California, at age 70. Lange had suffered poor health for the last 20 years: she had bleeding ulcers and other gastric problems, as well as pain and weakness resulting from having suffered polio early in her life.

1966–Actor, Luke Perry, is born Coy Luther Perry III in Mansfield, Ohio. He is best known for the role of Dylan McKay on the TV series Beverly Hills, 90210. He appeared in the films Scorchers, Terminal Bliss, Buffy the Vampire Slayer, 8 Seconds, Alice Upside Down, and Redemption Road.

1967–Yoko Ono’s art exhibition, “Half-a-Wind Show,” opens at the Lisson Gallery in London, England. John Lennon is a financial backer of the event.

1967–A chart topper: The Letter by The Box Tops.

1967–Western Connecticut State College opens their annual Fall Weekend by sponsoring this appearance by The Doors. It is attended mainly by students of the college and Danbury residents.

1967–Entrepreneur, venture capitalist, and philanthropist, Peter Andreas Thiel, is born in Frankfurt am Main, West Germany. He was a co-founder of PayPal. Thiel was one of the highest ranked under-21 class Chess Masters in the U.S. He received his B.A. in Philosophy from Stanford University and graduated from Stanford Law School. He was a co-founder of the Stanford Review, challenging campus mores, including political correctness and laws against hate speech. The Stanford Review is now the university's main conservative/libertarian newspaper. Thiel is listed as a member of the Steering Committee of the Bilderberg Group.

1968–The U.S. launches Apollo 7 from Cape Canaveral, Florida. Described by commander Walter M. Schirra, Jr. as a “magnificent flying machine,” Apollo 7 traveled 4.5 million miles in orbit around the Earth to become the first manned flight in NASA’s lunar-landing program. The mission also featured the first live TV transmission from a spacecraft in orbit.

1969–Bluesman, Muddy Waters, is seriously injured in a car crash near Chicago, Illinois.

1969–World Champion rodeo cowboy and co-founder of the Professional Bull Riders, Ty Monroe Murray, is born in Phoenix, Arizona. Murray started winning major rodeo events in high school. He won the Arizona High School Rodeo Association All-Around Champion Cowboy title, leading Arizona to its first championship in 1987. Murray went on to win the World All-Around Rodeo Champion title seven times, and was the top money-earner in saddle bronc, bareback, and bull riding events the same years. He also took home the Professional Rodeo Cowboys Association World Bull Riding Championship titles in 1993 and 1998. Murray is listed in The Guinness Book of Records as the youngest PRCA All-Around Rodeo Cowboy.

1972–A race riot occurs on the U.S. Navy aircraft carrier, Kitty Hawk, off the coast of Vietnam during Operation Linebacker.

1975–The late-night comedy show, Saturday Night Live, makes its debut with George Carlin as the first guest host. The first season cast is: Chevy Chase, John Belushi, Dan Ackroyd, Gilda Radner, Jane Curtin, and the voice of Don Pardo.

1977–Actor, Matthew Staton Bomer, is born in Webster Groves, Missouri. He is best known for the role of Neal Caffrey in the TV series White Collar.

1982–The Mary Rose, a Tudor carrack which sank on July 19, 1545, is salvaged from the sea bed of the Solent, off Portsmouth.

1984–Aboard the Space Shuttle Challenger, astronaut Kathryn D. Sullivan becomes the first American woman to perform a space walk.

1984–An Aeroflot Tupolev Tu-154 crashes into maintenance vehicles upon landing in Omsk, Russia, killing 178 people.

1985–Country singer, Tex Williams, dies of pancreatic cancer in Newhall, California, at age 68. He is best known for his talking blues style. His biggest hit was the novelty song, Smoke! Smoke! Smoke! (That Cigarette), which held the #1 position on the Billboard charts for 16 weeks in 1947.

1986–U.S.. President, Ronald Reagan, and Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, meet in Reykjavík, Iceland, in an effort to continue discussions about scaling back their intermediate missile arsenals in Europe.

1987–The first public display of the AIDS Memorial Quilt takes place on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., during the National March on Washington for Lesbian and Gay Rights.

1987–The Indian Peace Keeping Force in Sri Lanka begins Operation Pawan, killing thousands of ethnic Tamil civilians and hundreds of Tamil Tigers and Indian Army soldiers.

1991–Actor and comedian, Redd Foxx, dies of a heart attack in Los Angeles, California, at age 68. He is best known for his starring role on the sitcom Sanford and Son. Foxx gained notoriety with his raunchy nightclub acts during the 1950s and 1960s.

1996–A wood lorry and a school bus collide in Jõgeva county, Estonia, killing eight children.

2000–NASA launches STS-92, the 100th Space Shuttle mission, using Space Shuttle Discovery.

2001–The Polaroid Corporation files for federal bankruptcy protection.

2002–A bomb attack in a shopping mall in Vantaa, Finland, kills seven people.

2004–The PBS "Kids Go!" programming block is introduced, replacing PBS "Kids Bookworm Bunch," a joint programming block with Nelvana Limited.

2005–Economist and politician, Edward Szczepanik, dies in Worcestershire, England, at age 90. He was the last Prime Minister of the Polish Government in Exile.

2007–Spiritual leader and poet, Sri Chinmoy, dies a heart attack at his home in Jamaica, Queens, New York, at age 76. He was an Indian spiritual master who taught meditation in the West after moving to New York City in 1964. Chinmoy established his first meditation center in Queens, New York, and eventually had thousands of students in 60 countries.

2007–Entertainer, Werner von Trapp, dies in Waitsfield, Vermont, at age 91. He was the second-oldest son of Georg and Agatha (née Whitehead) von Trapp. He was a member of the Trapp Family Singers, whose lives were the inspiration for the play and movie The Sound of Music: he was portrayed as the character "Kurt." The Trapps fled Austria after its German annexation. They went to the United States in 1938, settled in Vermont in 1942, and performed throughout the country.

2013–A migrant boat sinks in the Channel of Sicily, killing at least 34 people.

2013–Chef, Josh Marks, dies of a gunshot wound to the head in Chicago, Illinois, at age 26. Marks came in second in Season 3 of the TV cooking competition show MasterChef. Before his death, Marks revealed in a video that he had bipolar disorder.

2016–Samsung announces the end of production of the Galaxy Note 7 smart phone after continued problems with its battery.

2016–Actress, Patricia Barry, dies of natural causes in Los Angeles, California, at age 93. She was seen on dozens of TV shows, including Maverick, 77 Sunset Strip, The Rifleman, The Donna Reed Show, My Three Sons, Route 66, Rawhide, The Twilight Zone, Perry Mason, Columbo, and Charlie’s Angels. She appeared in the films The Beast with Five Fingers, Humoresque, Send Me No Flowers, Kitten with a Whip, Dear Heart, For Keeps, and Sea of Love.

2017–Apollo asteroid 2012 TC4 passes 0.0003352 AU (31,160 miles) from Earth, well within the Moon's orbit.

2017–SpaceX launches a Falcon 9 Full Thrust rocket at Cape Canaveral, Florida, to supersynchronous orbit an Airbus-built communications satellite for Luxembourg-based SES and U.S. headquartered EchoStar.

2017–The Shinmoedake volcano, in Kagoshima Prefecture, Kyushu, Japan, erupts for the first time in six years. It is a part of the Mount Kirishima cluster of volcanoes. It is believed to have formed between 7,300 and 25,000 years ago.

2017–A vast hole re-opens in Antarctica. It is a giant valley deeper than the Grand Canyon buried beneath several miles of glacial ice.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Sir Thomas Wyatt; Meriweather Lewis; early roll film for box cameras; Elmore Leonard; Daryl Hall; Jean Cocteau; Yoko Ono’s 1967 art exhibition, “Half-a-Wind Show,” at the Lisson Gallery in London, England; Walter Schirra during Apollo 7; an ad for the first episode of Saturday Night Live featuring George Carlin; the AIDS Memorial Quilt on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.; and Sri Chinmoy.

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