285The execution of Saints Crispin and Crispinian during the reign of Diocletian: they are present-day patron saints of leather workers, curriers, and shoemakers.
473Emperor Leo I acclaims his grandson, Leo II, as Caesar of the Byzantine Empire.
1147Seljuk Turks defeat German crusaders, under Conrad III, at the Battle of Dorylaeum.
1147After a siege of four months, crusader knights led by Afonso Henriques reconquer Lisbon, Portugal.
1359Beatrice of Castile dies is Lisbon, Portugal, at age 65.
1400Poet, Geoffrey Chaucer, dies of he plague in London, England, at age 57. He is best known for his Canterbury Tales.
1415Henry V of England and his lightly armoured infantry and archers defeat the heavily armoured French cavalry in the Battle of Agincourt on Saint Crispin's Day.
1495John II of Portugal dies in Alvor, Algarve, at age 40. He is known for re-establishing the power of the Portuguese throne, reinvigorating its economy, and renewing its exploration of Africa and the Orient.
1616Dutch sea-captain, Dirk Hartog, makes second recorded landfall by a European on Australian soil, at the later-named Dirk Hartog Island off the West Australian coast.
1747A British fleet, under Admiral Sir Edward Hawke, defeats the French at the Second Battle of Cape Finisterre.
1760George III becomes King of Great Britain.
1812The American frigate, USS United States, commanded by Stephen Decatur, captures the British frigate HMS Macedonian in the War of 1812.
1822During the Greek War of Independence, the First Siege of Missolonghi begins.
1825Composer, Johann Strauss, Jr., is born in St. Ulrich, near Vienna (present-day Neubau), Austria. He composed over 500 waltzes, polkas, quadrilles, and other types of dance music, as well as several operettas and a ballet. In his lifetime, he was known as "The Waltz King," and was largely responsible for the popularity of the waltz in Vienna during the 19th century. His most famous piece of music is The Blue Danube. His father was composer, Johann Strauss I.
1826Philippe Pinel, founder of psychiatry, dies in Paris, France, at age 81. He also made notable contributions to the classification of mental disorders.
1828The St. Katharine Docks open in London, England.
1838Composer, Georges Bizet, is born Alexandre César Léopold Bizet in Paris, France. Best known for his operas in a career cut short by his early death, Bizet achieved few successes before his final work, Carmen, which has become one of the most popular and frequently performed works in the entire opera repertoire.
1854The Battle of Balaclava takes place during the Crimean War (known as Charge of the Light Brigade).
1861The Toronto Stock Exchange is founded in Canada.
1870Postcards are used for the first time in the U.S.
1881Painter, Pablo Picasso, is born Pablo Ruiz y Picasso in Málaga, Spain. From an early age, he demonstrated an exceptional artistic talent, painting in a realistic style. As he matured, Picasso experimented with different techniques and styles, ultimately co-founding the Cubist movement. One of his most famous works of cubism is Guernica, a very large canvas which depicts the horror and chaos of war. In the early 1900s, art was evolving and changing at a fantastic rate, and Picasso is considered to be one of the most important catalysts of those changes, establishing himself as one of the world's best-known and most influential individuals of the 20th century.
1900The United Kingdom annexes the Transvaal.
1909Character actor, Whit Bissell, is born Whitner Nutting Bissell in New York, New York. Bissell appeared in hundreds of films and television show episodes as a prominent character actor. Viewers of 1950s low-budget science fiction, horror films, and B movies remember him as one of "those actors" that always shows up in those kind of movies. He appeared in the films He Walked by Night, Lost Continent, It Should Happen to You, Creature from the Black Lagoon, The Caine Mutiny, Target Earth, Not as a Stranger, The Desperate Hours, Invasion of the Body Snatchers, The Young Stranger, Gunfight at the O.K. Corral, I Was a Teenage Werewolf, The Defiant Ones, Monster on the Campus, Never So Few, The Time Machine, The Magnificent Seven, Birdman of Alcatraz, Spencers Mountain, Hud, Where Love Has Gone, The Hallelujah Trail, Airport, and Soylent Green. His stepson, Brian Forster, was the second actor to play the role of Chris Partridge on the TV sitcom The Partridge Family.
1912Grand Ole Opry star, Minnie Pearl, is born Sarah Ophelia Colley in Centerville, Tennessee.
1920After 74 days on hunger strike in Brixton Prison, England, the Sinn Féin Lord Mayor of Cork, Terence MacSwiney, dies.
1920Alexander of Greece dies of a monkey bite in Athens, Greece, at age 27.
1924The Zinoviev letter, which senior Soviet official, Grigory Zinoviev, denied writing, is published in The Daily Mail. The Labour party would later blame this letter for the Conservatives' landslide election win.
1924Actor, Billy Barty, is born William John Bertanzetti in Washington, Pennsylvania. In adult life, he stood three feet, nine inches tall, due to cartilage-hair hypoplasia dwarfism, and because of his short stature, he was often cast in movies opposite taller performers for comic effect. He appeared in the films The Day of the Locust, W.C. Fields and Me, Rabbit Test, Foul Play, Hardly Working, Under the Rainbow, Legend, Tough Guys, and Willow.
1927The Italian luxury liner, SS Principessa Mafalda, sinks off the coast of Brazil, killing 314 people.
1928Actor, Tony Franciosa, is born Anthony George Papaleo in New York, New York. He appeared in the films A Face in the Crowd, A Hatful of Rain, Wild is the Wind, The Long Hot Summer, Period of Adjustment, The Pleasure Seekers, The Swinger, and The Drowning Pool. He was married to actress, Shelley Winters.
1938The Archbishop of Dubuque, Francis J.L. Beckman, denounces swing music as "a degenerated musical system... turned loose to gnaw away at the moral fiber of young people," warning that it leads down a "primrose path to hell." His warning is widely ignored.
1940Benjamin O. Davis, Sr. is named the first African American general in the U.S. Army.
1944Heinrich Himmler orders a crackdown on the Edelweiss Pirates, a loosely organized youth culture in Nazi Germany that had assisted army deserters and others to hide from the Third Reich.
1944The USS Tang, under Richard O'Kane (the top American submarine captain of World War II), is sunk by the ship's own malfunctioning torpedo.
1944The city of Carei, Romania, is liberated from Nazi-Hungarian occupation by Romanian and Soviet forces.
1944During World War II, the largest naval battle in history takes place in and around the Philippines between the Imperial Japanese Navy and the U.S. Third and U.S. Seventh Fleets.
1944Jon Anderson, lead singer of Yes, is born in Lancashire, England.
1945The Republic of China takes over administration of Taiwan following Japan's surrender to the Allies.
1955The microwave oven is introduced in Mansfield, Ohio, at the corporate headquarters of the Tappan Company. The manufacturer put a $1,200 price tag the new stove that could cook eggs in 22 seconds.
1959Chrissy Amphlett, lead singer of the Divinyls, is born Christine Joy Amphlett in Geelong, Victoria, Australia. The groups biggest hit was I Touch Myself.
1960A 17-year-old Mick Jagger accidentally meets his old school chum, Keith Richards, on a train. The two bond together again over a mutual love of R&B records and later join Little Boy Blue & the Blue Boys.
1960Engineer, Harry Ferguson, dies of a barbiturate overdose in Stow-on-the-Wold, Gloucestershire, England, at age 75. The inquest was unable to conclude whether this had been accidental or not. Ferguson developed the modern agricultural tractor, was the first Irishman to build and fly his own aeroplane, and developed the first four-wheel drive Formula One car, the Ferguson P99.
1962During the Cuban Missile Crisis, Adlai Stevenson shows photos at a meeting of the United Nations Security Council proving that Soviet missiles are installed in Cuba.
1962American author, John Steinbeck, is awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature.
1968John Lennon and Yoko Ono announce that they are expecting a child to be born in February 1969. Unfortunately, Yoko will have miscarriage.
1971The United Nations seats the People's Republic of China and expels the Republic of China.
1977Digital Equipment Corporation releases OpenVMS V1.0.
1980Proceedings at the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction come to a conclusion.
1983The United States and its Caribbean allies invade Grenada, six days after Prime Minister Maurice Bishop and several of his supporters are executed in a coup d'état.
1989Novelist, Mary McCarthy, dies of lung cancer in New York, New York, at age 77. Her books include The Company She Keeps, The Oasis, and The Group.
1991Rock concert promoter, Bill Graham, dies in a helicopter crash after a Huey Lewis concert in Concord, California, at age 60.
1992Country singer, Roger Miller, dies of cancer at age 56.
1993Actor, Vincent Price, dies of lung cancer at age 82.
1994Actress, Mildred Natwick, dies of cancer in Manhattan, New York, at age 89. She appeared in the films The Enchanted Cottage, 3 Godfathers, The Kissing Bandit, She Wore a Yellow Ribbon, The Quiet Man, The Trouble with Harry, The Court Jester, Teenage Rebel, Tammy and the Bachelor, Barefoot in the Park, Daisy Miller, Kiss Me Goodbye, and Dangerous Liaisons.
1995A commuter train slams into a school bus in Fox River Grove, Illinois, killing seven students.
1995Pop singer, Cliff Richard, receives a knighthood from Queen Elizabeth II.
1995Actress, Viveca Lindfors, dies of rheumatoid arthritis in Uppsala, Sweden, at age 84. She appeared in the films Adventures of Don Juan, Night Unto Night, Dark City, No Sad Songs for Me, Rawhide, King of Kings, Tempest, The Way We Were, Voices, Creepshow, The Sure Thing, and Stargate.
1997After a brief civil war, which has driven President Pascal Lissouba out of Brazzaville, Denis Sassou Nguesso proclaims himself the President of the Republic of the Congo.
1998Thousands of people gather in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, for the ground-breaking ceremony of a memorial to the victims of the 1995 bombing of the Murrah Federal Building.
2002Actor and singer, Richard Harris, dies of Hodgkin's disease in London, England, at age 72. As a singer, he had a big hit with the Jimmy Webb song MacArthur Park. He appeared in the films Shake Hands with the Devil, The Wreck of the Mary Deare, The Guns of Navarone, Mutiny on the Bounty, This Sporting Life, Major Dundee, Hawaii, Caprice, Camelot, The Molly Maguires, A Man Called Horse, Juggernaut, Robin and Marian, The Field, Patriot Games, Unforgiven, Wrestling Ernest Hemingway, Gladiator, and Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone.
2009Bombings in Baghdad, Iraq, kill 155 people and injure at least 721 others.
2010Actress, Lisa Blount, dies from the blood disease idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in Little Rock, Arkansas, at age 53. She appeared in the films September 30, 1955, An Officer and a Gentleman, Prince of Darkness, Great Balls of Fire!, and Box of Moon Light.
2013Stuntman-director, Hal Needham, dies of cancer in Los Angeles, California, at age 82. As the highest paid stuntman in the world, Needham broke 56 bones, broke his back twice, punctured a lung, and knocked out a few teeth. His career has included work on 4,500 TV episodes and 310 feature films as a stuntman, stunt coordinator, second unit director, and ultimately, director. He moved behind the camera in 1976 to direct Smokey and the Bandit. His other films include Hooper, The Cannonball Run, Megaforce, and Stroker Ace.
2013Actress, Marcia Wallace, dies of pneumonia in Los Angeles, California, at age 70. She is best known for the role of receptionist Carol Kester on The Bob Newhart Show. She was also known for her voice work on the TV series The Simpsons. She appeared in the films Pray TV, Teen Witch, My Moms a Werewolf, Forever for Now, and Big Stan.
2014Musician, Jack Bruce, dies of liver disease in Suffolk, England, at age 71. He is best known for his multi-faceted contributions to the British supergroup Cream, which included Eric Clapton and Ginger Baker.
2016The Catholic Church announces that cremated remains must be kept on consecrated land, rather than scattered or kept at home. The Church first permitted cremation in 1963, but strongly favors burial.
2016Paul Beatty becomes the first American author to win the Man Booker Prize for his novel The Sellout.
2016Rockfall inside the Anton Anderson Memorial Tunnel causes an indefinite closure of the tunnel, blocking the only road access to and from Whittier, Alaska, and halting freight train service between Whittier and the Alaskan interior.
2016Illegally stored explosives in the town of Xinmin in Shaanxi province, China, cause an explosion in a house that kills at least 14 people and injures 147 others.
2016An accident on board the Thunder River Rapids Ride at Dreamworld on the Gold Coast in Queensland, Australia, leaves four people dead.
2016Aviation icon, Bob Hoover, dies in Los Angeles, California, at age 94. He was an air show pilot, U.S. Air Force test pilot, and fighter pilot. Known as the "pilot's pilot," Hoover revolutionized modern aerobatic flying and was referred to in many aviation circles as one of the greatest pilots in history.
PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Geoffrey Chaucer; Pablo Picasso; Minnie Pearl; the first microwave oven; Mary McCarthy; Viveca Lindfors; and Jack Bruce.