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1972–Filming begins on That’ll Be the Day, a movie starring David Essex, Ringo Starr, and Keith Moon. Halliwell’s Film Guide proclaims the film has “well-sketched cameos, a likable dour viewpoint, and a cheerful pop music background.” The story was loosely based on the early, pre-fame years of John Lennon (even though David Essex looked a lot more like Paul McCartney).

BC 4004–Creation of the world begins, according to the calculations of Archbishop James Ussher. He might have been off a few trillion years.

BC 42–In the Second Battle of Philippi, Mark Antony and Octavian defeat Brutus's army. Brutus then commits suicide.

425–Valentinian III is elevated as Roman Emperor at the age of six.

501–The Synodus Palmaris, called by Gothic King Theoderic the Great, discharges Pope Symmachus of all charges, ending the schism of Antipope Laurentius.

930–Emperor Daigo of Japan dies in Heian Kyo, Japan, at age 45.

949–Emperor Yozei of Japan dies in Heian Kyo (present-day Kyoto), at age 80.

1086–At the Battle of Sagrajas, the army of Yusuf ibn Tashfin defeats the forces of Castilian King Alfonso VI.

1091–A devastating tornado strikes the heart of London, England, killing two people and demolishing the then-wooden London Bridge.

1157–The Battle of Grathe Heath ends the civil war in Denmark. King Sweyn III is killed and Valdemar I restores the country.

1295–The first treaty forming the Auld Alliance between Scotland and France (against England) is signed in Paris, France.

1452–Joanna, Princess of Portugal, is born in Lisbon, Portugal. She was the daughter of King Afonso V of Portugal and his first wife, Isabella of Coimbra.

1641–Irish Catholic gentry from Ulster try to seize control of Dublin Castle, the seat of English rule in Ireland, to force concessions to Catholics.

1694–British and American colonial forces, led by Sir William Phips, fail to seize Quebec from the French.

1707–The Parliament of Great Britain meets for the first time.

1715–Peter II of Russia is born Pyotr Alekseyevich Romanov in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

1739–The War of Jenkins' Ear starts, when British Prime Minister Robert Walpole reluctantly declares war on Spain.

1812–French General, Claude François de Malet, begins a conspiracy to overthrow Napoleon Bonaparte, claiming that the Emperor died in Russia and that he is now the commandant of Paris.

1814–The first plastic surgery is performed in England.

1834–Iranian King, Fath-Ali Shah Qajar, dies in Isfahan, Iran, at age 62.

1844–Actress, Sarah Bernhardt, is born Henriette-Rosine Bernard in Paris, France. In the 1880s, she was the most famous and sought-after actress in Europe and the Americas. Audiences were captivated by her golden voice, her passionate acting, and by rumors of her extravagant lifestyle, which included an alleged affair with the Prince of Wales.

1850–The first National Women's Rights Convention begins in Worcester, Massachusetts.

1861–President Abraham Lincoln suspends the writ of habeas corpus for all military-related cases.

1867–Seventy-two Senators are summoned by Royal Proclamation to serve as the first members of the Canadian Senate.

1869–Football player and coach, John (William) Heisman, is born in Cleveland, Ohio. He was a coach of football, basketball, and baseball. He served as the head football coach at Oberlin College, Buchtel College (present-day University of Akron), Auburn University, Clemson University, Georgia Tech, the University of Pennsylvania, Washington & Jefferson College, and Rice University. The Heisman Trophy, awarded annually to the season's most outstanding college football player, is named after him.

1892–Gummo Marx, of The Marx Brothers, is born Milton Marx in Manhattan, New York. He was the second youngest of the five Marx Brothers and worked with them on the vaudeville circuit. He left acting when he was drafted into the U.S. Army during World War I (years before his brothers Chico, Harpo, Groucho, and Zeppo began their film career).

1906–Alberto Santos-Dumont flies an airplane in the first heavier-than-air flight in Europe, at Champs de Bagatelle, Paris, France.

1911–The first use of aircraft in war comes when an Italian pilot takes off from Libya to observe Turkish army lines during the Italo-Turkish War.

1912–The Battle of Kumanovo begins between the Serbian and Ottoman armies, during the First Balkan War.

1915–Twenty-five thousand women march in New York City, demanding the right to vote.

1917–Vladimir Lenin calls for the October Revolution in Russia.

1918–Actor, James (Firman) Daly, is born in Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin. He is best known for the role of Dr. Paul Lochner in the TV drama Medical Center. He appeared in the films The Young Stranger, I Aim at the Stars, Planet of the Apes, The Big Bounce, and Wild in the Sky. His children are actress, Tyne Daly, and actor, Tim Daly.

1922–Actress, Coleen Gray, in born Doris Bernice Jensen in Staplehurst, Nebraska. She appeared in the films Nightmare Alley, Red River, Father is a Bachelor, Models Inc., Kansas City Confidential, The Killing, Death of a Scoundrel, The Vampire, Johnny Rocco, The Leech Woman, and The Phantom Planet.

1923–Actor, Frank (Spenser) Sutton, is born in Clarksville, Tennessee. He is best known for the role of Gunnery Sergeant Vince Carter on the TV series Gomer Pyle, U.S.M.C. He appeared in the films The Glenn Miller Story, Marty, Town Without Pity, The Satan Bug, and Hurricane.

1925–Johnny Carson, longtime host of The Tonight Show, is born John William Carson in Corning, Nebraska. Although his show was already successful by the end of the 1960s, it was during the 1970s that Carson became an American icon and remained so even after his retirement in 1992. He adopted a casual, conversational approach with extensive interaction with guests, an approach pioneered by Arthur Godfrey and previous Tonight Show hosts, Steve Allen and Jack Paar. Carson retired from show business on May 22, 1992, when he stepped down as host of The Tonight Show. His farewell was a major media event, often emotional for Carson, his colleagues, and the audiences, and stretched over several nights. NBC gave the role of host to the show's then-current permanent guest host, Jay Leno.

1929–After a steady decline in stock market prices since a peak in September, the New York Stock Exchange begins to show signs of panic.

1931–Actress, Diana Dors, is born Diana Mary Fluck in Swindon, Berkshire, England. She first came to public notice as a blonde bombshell in the style of Marilyn Monroe. Later, she showed a genuine talent for TV, recordings, and cabaret, and gained new popularity as a regular chat-show guest. She appearted in the films Holiday Camp, Good-Time Girl, A Boy a Girl and a Bike, Diamond City, Lady Godiva Rides Again, Man Bait, The Unholy Wife, The Long Haul, Tread Softly Stranger, On the Double, The Big Bankroll, Berserk!, Hammerhead, Deep End, There's a Girl in My Soup, Hannie Caulder, Theatre of Blood, Adventures of a Taxi Driver, and Steaming. She was married to actor, Richard Dawson.

1935–Dutch Schultz, Abe Landau, Otto Berman, and Bernard "Lulu" Rosencrantz, are fatally shot at a saloon in Newark, New Jersey in what will become known as The Chophouse Massacre.

1939–The Japanese Mitsubishi G4M twin-engine "Betty" Bomber makes its maiden flight.

1939–Novelist, Zane Grey, dies of heart failure in Altadena, California, at age 67. He was a major force in shaping the myths of the Old West. His books and stories were adapted into other media, such as film and TV productions. He was the author of more than 90 books, and his total book sales exceed 40 million. His works include The Last of the Plainsman, The Rainbow Trail, The Mysterious Rider, The Call of the Canyon, West of the Pecos, Shadow on the Trail, and The Maverick Queen.

1940–Freddie Marsden, of Gerry & The Pacemakers, is born in Liverpool, England. He is the brother of musician, Gerry Marsden.

1941–Field Marshal, Georgy Zhukov, takes command of Red Army operations to prevent the further advance into Russia of German forces and to prevent the Wehrmacht from capturing Moscow.

1942–At El Alamein in northern Egypt, the British Eighth Army, under Field Marshal Montgomery, begins a critical offensive to expel the Axis armies from Egypt.

1942–All 12 passengers and crewmen aboard an American Airlines DC-3 airliner are killed when it is struck by a U.S. Army Air Forces bomber near Palm Springs, California. Among the victims is award-winning composer and songwriter, Ralph Rainger.

1942–During World War II, the Battle for Henderson Field begins during the Guadalcanal Campaign.

1942–Author and screenwriter, (John) Michael Crichton, is born in Chicago, Illinois. He is best known for his work in the science fiction, medical fiction, and thriller genres. His books have sold over 200 million copies worldwide, and many have been adapted into films. His works include The Andromeda Strain, The Terminal Man, The Great Train Robbery, Sphere, Jurassic Park, Disclosure, The Lost World, and Next.

1944–The Battle of Leyte Gulf, the largest naval battle in history, begins in the Philippines during World War II.

1946–The United Nations General Assembly convenes for the first time, at an auditorium in Flushing, Queens, New York.

1947–Greg Ridley, bass player for Humble Pie, is born in Cumberland, England.

1950–Entertainer, Al Jolson, dies of a heart attack during a card game in San Francisco, California, at age 64. His last words were said to be "Boys, I'm going." A stage performer since 1899, he starred in the first talking picture, The Jazz Singer, in 1927.

1955–Prime Minister Ngo Dinh Diem defeats former Emperor Bao Dai in a referendum and founds the Republic of Vietnam.

1956–Thousands of Hungarians protest against the government and Soviet occupation.

1956–NBC-TV airs the first videotape recording. It is a tape of Jonathan Winters that is seen coast to coast in the U.S.

1956–Singer-songwriter and actor, Dwight (David) Yoakam, is born in Pikeville, Kentucky. He has recorded more than 21 albums, and sold more than 25 million albums worldwide. His big breakout hit was Honky Tonk Man. He has been the most frequent musical guest in the history of The Tonight Show. He has appeared in the films Red Rock West, Roswell, Don’t Look Back, Sling Blade, The Minus Man, Panic Room, Hollywood Homicide, Wedding Crashers, Bloodworth, and 90 Minutes in Heaven.

1957–Fashion designer, Christian Dior, dies of a heart atrack while vacationing in Montecatini Terme, Tuscany, Italy, at age 52. Several stories have circulated regarding the cause of Dior's death. Some report that he died of a heart attack after choking on a fish bone. Time magazine's obituary stated that he died of a heart attack after playing a game of cards. However, an acquaintance of Dior's wrote in his memoirs that the heart attack was caused by a strenuous sexual encounter. The exact circumstances of Dior's death remain undisclosed. He is best known as the founder of one of the world's top fashion houses.

1958–Russian poet and novelist, Boris Pasternak, is awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature for his novel Dr. Zhivago. He is forced to refuse the honor due to negative Soviet reaction

1958–An underground earthquake traps 174 miners in the No. 2 colliery at Springhill, Nova Scotia, the deepest coal mine in North America.

1958–The Smurfs, a fictional race of blue dwarves, later popularized in a Hanna-Barbera animated cartoon series, appear for the first time in the story La flute à six schtroumpfs, a Johan and Peewit adventure by Peyo, which is serialized in the weekly Spirou magazine.

1959–Parody singer and accordionist, Weird Al Yankovic, is born Alfred Matthew Yankovic in Downey, California. He is known for his humorous songs that make light of popular culture and often parody specific songs by contemporary musical acts and polka medleys of several popular songs, featuring his favored instrument, the accordion.

1962–Little Stevie Wonder records his first single at age 12. The song is Thank You For Loving Me All the Way.

1964–Time magazine uses term “Op Art” for first time.

1965–The U.S. 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile), in conjunction with South Vietnamese forces, launch a new operation seeking to destroy North Vietnamese forces in Pleiku in the II Corps Tactical Zone (the Central Highlands).

1970–Gary Gabelich sets a land speed record in the Blue Flame, a rocket-powered automobile fueled with natural gas.

1971–A chart topper: Do You Know What I Mean by Lee Michaels.

1972–Operation Linebacker, a U.S. bombing campaign against North Vietnam in response to its Easter Offensive, ends after five months.

1972–Filming begins on That’ll Be the Day, a movie starring David Essex, Ringo Starr, and Keith Moon. Halliwell’s Film Guide proclaims the film has “well-sketched cameos, a likable dour viewpoint, and a cheerful pop music background.” The story was loosely based on the early, pre-fame years of John Lennon (even though David Essex looked a lot more like Paul McCartney).

1973–During the Watergate scandal, President Richard M. Nixon agrees to turn over subpoenaed audio tapes of his Oval Office conversations.

1977–Paleontologist, Elso Barghoorn, announces that 34-billion-year-old one-celled fossils, the earliest life forms, have been discovered.

1978–CBS Records raises the price of vinyl records by one dollar to $8.98.

1978–Country singer, Maybelle Carter, dies after a few years of poor health in Hendersonville, Tennessee, at age 69. She is best known as a member of the historic Carter Family act in the 1920s and 1930s, and also as a member of Mother Maybelle and the Carter Sisters. The Carter Family was one of the first commercial rural country music groups.

1982–A gunfight breaks out between police officers and members of a religious cult known as the "Christ Miracle Healing Center and Church" in Miracle Valley, Arizona. The shootout leaves two cultists dead and dozens of cultists and police officers injured.

1983–The U.S. Marines barracks in Beirut, Lebanon, is hit by a truck bomb, killing 241 U.S. military personnel. A French army barracks in Lebanon is also hit that same morning, killing 58 troops.

1989–The Hungarian Republic is officially declared, replacing the communist Hungarian People's Republic.

1991–The signing of the Paris Peace Accords takes place, ending the Cambodian-Vietnamese War.

1993–A Provisional IRA bomb prematurely detonates in the Shankill area of Belfast, Ireland, killing the bomber and nine civilians.

1994–Actor, Robert Lansing, dies of lung cancer in New York, New York, at age 66. He was seen in dozens of TV shows, including Thriller, The Twilight Zone, Wagon Train, 12 O’Clock High, Daniel Boone, The Virginian, Star Trek, The Mod Squad, and Mannix. He appeared in the films 4D Man, A Gathering of Eagles, Under the Yum Yum Tree, An Eye for an Eye, and Empire of the Ants.

1995–Yolanda Saldívar is found guilty of first-degree murder in the shooting death of popular Latin singer, Selena. Three days later, Saldívar was sentenced to life in prison, eligible for parole in 2025.

1998–Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Palestinian Chairman Yasser Arafat reach a "land for peace" agreement.

1998–Swatch Internet Time, a measure of 1,000 "beats" per day, is inaugurated by the Swatch Group.

2002–Chechen terrorists seize the House of Culture theater in Moscow, Russia, taking approximately 700 theater-goers hostage.

2002–Playwright and composer, Adolph Green, dies in New York, New York, at age 87. With long-time collaborator, Betty Comden, he penned the screenplays and songs for some of the most beloved movie musicals, particularly at Metro Goldwyn Mayer, during the genre's heyday. His worrk includes Good News, On the Town, Singin’ in the Rain, The Band Wagon, Bells Are Ringing, Peter Pan, and What a Way to Go!

2004–A powerful earthquake and its aftershocks hit Niigata Prefecture in northern Japan, killing 35 people, injuring 2,200 others, and leaving 85,000 people homeless or evacuated.

2004–Opera singer, Robert Merrill, dies in New Rochelle, New York, while watching Game 1 of the 2004 World Series, at age 87. During his career, he made 769 performances with the Metropolitan Opera.

2007–A powerful cold front in the Bay of Campeche causes the Usumacinta jackup rig to collide with Kab 101, leading to the death and drowning of 22 people during rescue operations that take place after evacuation of the rig.

2011–A 7.2 earthquake strikes Van Province, Turkey, killing 582 people and injuring thousands of others.

2011–The Libyan National Transition Council deems the Libyan Civil War over.

2012–After 38 years, the world's first teletext service (BBC's Ceefax) ceases broadcast, due to Northern Ireland completing the digital switchover.

2013–Gypie Mayo, of Dr. Feelgood and The Yardbirds, dies in Bath, Somerset, England, at age 62.

2014–Journalist, Terry Keenan, dies of a cerebral hemorrhage in New York, New York, at age 53. She was a financial news anchor and journalist for CNN, Fox News Channel, and The New York Post.

2014–Astrologer, Joan Quigley, dies in San Francisco, California, at age 87. She is best known for providing astrological advice to the Reagan White House in the 1980s. She was called on by First Lady, Nancy Reagan, in 1981, after John Hinckley's attempted assassination of the President, and stayed on as the White House astrologer in secret, until being outed in 1988, by former Chief of staff, Donald Regan.

2014–Singer, Alvin Stardust, dies of prostate cancer in Ifold, West Sussex, England, at age 72. His was most popular during the 1980s “Glam Rock” period, and his biggest hit was My Coo Ca Choo.

2015–The lowest sea-level pressure in the Western Hemisphere, and the highest reliably-measured non-tornadic sustained winds, are recorded in Hurricane Patricia, which strikes Mexico hours later, killing at least 13 people and causing over $280 million in damages.

2016–Two explosions in a park in the Japanese city of Utsunomiya, Tochigi Prefecture, kill at least one person and injure three others. Local media reports that a 72-year-old ex-military officer is responsible for the blasts.

2016–A collision between a tour bus and a tractor-trailer kills at least 13 people and injures 31 others in Desert Hot Springs, California.

2016–Politician and activist, Tom Hayden, dies following a lengthy illness in Santa Monica, California, at age 76. He is best known for his role as an anti-war, civil rights, and radical intellectual counterculture activist. In 1968, Hayden played a major role in the protests outside the Democratic National Convention in Chicago, Illinois, broken up by what was later called by federal authorities "a police riot." Six months after the convention, he and seven other protesters, including Abbie Hoffman and Jerry Rubin, were indicted on federal charges of conspiracy and incitement to riot as part of the "Chicago Eight" (aka "The Chicago Seven" after Bobby Seale's case was separated from the others).

2017–Typhoon Lan makes landfall in the Shizuoka Prefecture of Japan, killing at least two people and injuring 10 others.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: The Earth; Sarah Bernhardt; Diana Dors; Coleen Gray; Al Jolson; Weird Al Yankovic; Maybelle Carter; Swatch Internet Time; Robert Merrill; and Joan Quigley.

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