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1964The T.A.M.I. Show is filmed in Santa Monica, California, over the next two days. The concert movie features Chuck Berry, The Beach Boys, Smokey Robinson & the Miracles, Marvin Gaye, Jan & Dean, The Supremes, The Rolling Stones, and James Brown. Keen-eyed viewers will spot actress Teri Garr and Mickey singer, Toni Basil, among the dancers.

97–Emperor Nerva is forced by the Praetorian Guard to adopt general Marcus Ulpius Trajanus as his heir and successor.

306–Maxentius is proclaimed Roman Emperor.

312–Constantine I defeats Maxentius, becoming the sole Roman Emperor in the West.

456–The Visigoths brutally sack the Suebi's capital of Braga (Portugal), and the town's churches are burnt to the ground.

969–Byzantine General, Michael Bourtzes, seizes one of Antioch's main wall towers, which he defends against repeated attacks for three days, until the reinforcements led by the stratopedarches Peter arrive and secure the city for the Byzantines.

1017–Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor, is born. He was a member of the Salian Dynasty of Holy Roman Emperors. He was the eldest son of Conrad II of Germany and Gisela of Swabia.

1061–Empress Agnes, acting as regent for her son, brings about the election of Bishop Cadalus, the anti-pope Honorius II.

1138–King Boleslaw III Wrymouth of Poland dies in Sochaczew, Poland, at age 52.

1312–Elizabeth of Carinthia, Queen of Germany, dies in Königsfelden, Swabia, at age 50.

1344–The lower town of Smyrna is captured by Crusaders.

1412–Margaret I of Denmark dies on a ship in the harbor of Flensburg in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, at age 59. It was rumored that she dies of the plague or of poisoning.

1420–Beijing is officially designated the capital of the Ming dynasty on the same year that the Forbidden City, the seat of government, is completed.

1449–Christian I is crowned King of Denmark.

1453–Ladislaus the Posthumous is crowned King of Bohemia in Prague.

1466–Dutch philosopher, Erasmus, is born Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus in Rotterdam or Gouda, Burgundian Netherlands. He was Renaissance humanist, Catholic priest, social critic, teacher, and theologian. Using humanist techniques for working on texts, he prepared important new Latin and Greek editions of the New Testament, which raised questions that would be influential in the Protestant Reformation and Catholic Counter-Reformation. He wrote On Free Will, The Praise of Folly, Handbook of a Christian Knight, On Civility in Children, Copia: Foundations of the Abundant Style, Julius Exclusus, and many other works.

1492–Christopher Columbus lands in Cuba on his first voyage to the New World.

1516–Turkish forces, under the Grand Vizier Sinan Pasha, defeat the Mamluks near Gaza.

1531–Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi again defeats the army of Lebna Dengel, Emperor of Ethiopia. The southern part of Ethiopia falls under Imam Ahmad's control.

1538–The first university in the New World (in present-day Dominican Republic), the Universidad Santo Tomás de Aquino, is established.

1627–Jahangir, Mughal Emperor of India, dies in Rajauri, Rajouri district, Kashmir, Mughal Empire (present-day Jammu and Kashmir), at age 58.

1628–During the French Wars of Religion, the Siege of La Rochelle, which had lasted for 14 months, ends with the surrender of the Huguenots.

1636–A vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony establishes the first college in what would become the United States, today known as Harvard University.

1664–The Duke of York and Albany's Maritime Regiment of Foot, later to be known as the Royal Marines, is established.

1703–Mathematician and cryptographer, John Wallis, dies in Oxford, Oxfordshire, England, at age 86. He is given partial credit for the development of infinitesimal calculus. Between 1643 and 1689, he served as chief cryptographer for Parliament and, later, the Royal Court. He is credited with introducing the symbol for infinity.

1704–Physician and philosopher, John Locke, dies in High Laver, Essex, England, at age 72. He is widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism." Considered one of the first of the British empiricists, following the tradition of Sir Francis Bacon, he is equally important to social contract theory. His work greatly affected the development of epistemology and political philosophy. His writings influenced Voltaire and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, many Scottish Enlightenment thinkers, as well as the American revolutionaries. His contributions to classical republicanism and liberal theory are reflected in the United States Declaration of Independence.

1707–An earthquake in Hoei, Japan, causes more than 5,000 deaths in Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu.

1708–Prince George of Denmark dies of severe asthma and dropsy at Kensington Palace, London, England, at age 55. He was the husband of Queen Anne, who reigned over Great Britain from 1702.

1726–The novel Gulliver's Travels by Jonathan Swift is published.

1740–Anna of Russia dies of kidney disease in Saint Petersburg, Russia, at age 47.

1775–During the American Revolutionary War, a British proclamation forbids residents from leaving Boston, Massachusetts.

1793–Eli Whitney applies for a patent on the cotton gin.

1793–Businessman, Eliphalet Remington, is born in Suffield, Connecticut. He designed the Remington rifle and founded what is now known as the Remington Arms Co., L.L.C.

1818–Abigail Adams, the second First Lady of the United States, dies of typhoid fever in Quincy, Massachusetts, at age 73. Her last words were, "Do not grieve, my friend, my dearest friend. I am ready to go. And John, it will not be long."

1834–The Pinjarra massacre occurs in the Swan River Colony, at present-day Pinjarra, Western Australia. An estimated 30 Noongar people are killed by British colonists.

1835–The United Tribes of New Zealand is established with the signature of the Declaration of Independence.

1846–Chef, restaurateur, Georges Auguste Escoffier, is born in Villeneuve-Loubet, France. Escoffier was one of the most important pioneers in the development of modern French cuisine. His methods were based on those of the founder of French haute cuisine, Marie-Antoine Carême. Escoffier's genius was to simplify and modernize his methods. He was also responsible for the elevation of chef to a respected profession by introducing organized discipline to the kitchen. He is a legendary figure among chefs and gourmets and is work in both aspects of the field are still very influential in professional kitchens today.

1858–Macy’s department store opens in New York City.

1886–The Statue of Liberty, a gift from France designed by Auguste Bartholdi, is dedicated in New York Harbor by President Grover Cleveland. The first ticker tape parade takes place in New York City, as office workers spontaneously throw ticker tape into the streets as the statue is dedicated.

1891–The Mino-Owari earthquake, the largest inland earthquake in Japan's history, strikes Gifu Prefecture.

1891–Stunt pilot, Ormer (Leslie) Locklear, is born in Greenville, Texas. He was considered the foremost "aviation stunt man in the world," during and immediately after World War I.

1893–Tchaikovsky's Symphony No. 6 in B Minor, Pathétique, receives its première performance in St. Petersburg, Russia, only nine days before the composer's death.

1897–Costume designer, Edith Head, is born Edith Claire Posener in San Bernardino, California. She got her first job at Paramount Studios as a costume sketch artist, having had no training. She first came to prominence with the design of Dorothy Lamour's trademark sarong, becoming a household name when the Academy Awards created a Costume Designer category in 1948. After 43 years at Paramount, Head left for Universal Pictures, very likely due to the close working relationship she had developed with Alfred Hitchcock. Over the course of her career, She designed costumes for many of Hollywood's biggest names, including Mae West, Veronica Lake, Barbara Stanwyck, Ingrid Bergman, Betty Davis, Olivia de Havilland, Elizabeth Taylor, Audrey Hepburn, Doris Day, Kim Novak, Natalie Wood, and Grace Kelly. She also dresses Paul Newman and Robert Redford for The Sting.

1899–Engineer, Ottmar Mergenthaler, dies of tuberculosis in Baltimore, Maryland, at age 45. He invented the Linotype machine, which was the first device that could easily and quickly set complete lines of type for use in printing presses. This machine revolutionized the art of printing.

1902–Actress, Elsa (Sullivan) Lanchester, is born in Lewisham, London, England. She is best known for the role of “the bride” in the film The Bride of Frankenstein. She also appeared in the films Lassie Come Home, The Spiral Staircase, The Razor’s Edge, The Bishop’s Wife, The Secret Garden, 3 Ring Circus, Witness for the Prosecution, Bell, Book and Candle, Mary Poppins, That Darn Cat!, and Willard. She was married to actor, Charles Laughton.

1903–Writer, Evelyn Waugh, is born Arthur Evelyn St. John Waugh in London, England. His most famous works include the early satires Decline and Fall and A Handful of Dust, the novel Brideshead Revisited, and the Second World War trilogy Sword of Honour.

1904–Panama and Uruguay establish diplomatic links.

1914–Comedienne, Dody Goodman, is born Dolores Goodman in Columbus, Ohio. She was seen on TV in the shows Search for Tomorrow, The Phil Silvers Show, Mary Hartman, Mary Hartman, Fantasy Island, The Love Boat, St. Elsewhere, and Diff’rent Strokes. She appeared in the films Bedtime Story, Silent Movie, Grease, Max Dugan Returns, and Splash.

1914–Biologist, Jonas (Edward) Salk, creator of the first polio vaccine, is born in New York, New York. Until 1957, when the Salk vaccine was introduced, polio was considered one of the most frightening public health problems in the world. In postwar America, annual epidemics were increasingly devastating. According to a 2009 PBS documentary, "Apart from the atomic bomb, America's greatest fear was polio." Salk’s sole focus had been to develop a safe and effective vaccine as rapidly as possible, with no interest in personal profit. When asked who owned the patent to it, Salk said, "There is no patent. Could you patent the Sun?"

1915–Richard Strauss conducts the first performance of his tone poem, “Eine Alpensinfonie,” in Berlin, Germany.

1918–Czechoslovakia declares independence from Austria-Hungary, marking the beginning of an independent Czechoslovak state, after 300 years.

1918–A new Polish government in western Galicia is established, triggering the Polish-Ukrainian War.

1919–The U.S. Congress passes the Volstead Act over President Woodrow Wilson's veto, paving the way for Prohibition to begin the following January.

1922–Italian fascists, led by Benito Mussolini, march on Rome and take over the Italian government.

1927–Pan American World Airways (Pan Am) makes the first international flight, from Key West, Florida to Havana, Cuba.

1928–Declaration of the Youth Pledge in Indonesia: the first time Indonesia Raya, now the national anthem, is sung.

1928–Cajun musician, Iry LeJeune, is born in Pointe Noire, Louisiana. He brought Cajun music and accordion back into prominence on the jukeboxes and in the dance halls of Louisiana, following two decades of fiddles and Western Swing popularity. He is one of the most loved Cajun musicians of the 1940s and 1950s. To this day, most jukeboxes in French Louisiana feature at least one song by LeJeune.

1929–Black Monday, a day in the Wall Street Crash of 1929, sees a major stock market upheaval.

1929–Actress, Joan (Ann) Plowright, is born in Brigg, Lincolnshire, England. She appeared in the films The Entertainer, Uncle Vanya, Three Sisters, Equus, Brimstone & Treacle, Britannia Hospital, The Dressmaker, Avalon, I Love You to Death, Enchanted April, Dennis the Menace, A Place for Annie, Widows' Peak, The Scarlet Letter, Surviving Picasso, Tea with Mussolini, and Mrs. Palfrey at the Claremont. She was married to actor, Laurence Olivier.

1932–Model-actress, Suzy Parker, is born Cecelia Anne Renee Parker in Long Island City, New York. She worked non-stop for Revlon, Hertz, Westinghouse, Max Factor, Bliss, DuPont, Simplicity, and Smirnoff. She also was on the covers of around 70 magazines, including Vogue, Elle, Life, Look, Redbook, Paris Match, and McCall's. She is known for her appearance in The Twilight Zone episode "Number 12 Looks Just Like You." She appeared in the films Kiss Them for Me, Funny Face, Ten North Frederick, The Best of Everything, The Interns, and Chamber of Horrors. She was married to actor, Bradford Dillman.

1940–Greece rejects Italy's ultimatum and the Greco-Italian War begins. Italy invades Greece through Albania, marking Greece's entry into World War II.

1941–Hank Marvin, guitarist with the instrumental group, The Shadows, is born Brian Robson Rankin in Newcastle, England. His distinctive twang inspired Eric Clapton, Jeff Beck, Jimmy Page, and Keith Richards to pick up the guitar.

1942–The Alaska Highway (Alcan Highway) is completed through Canada to Fairbanks, Alaska.

1945–British invasion rocker, Wayne Fontana, is born Glyn Geoffrey Ellis in Levenshulme, Manchester, Lancashire, England. With his band, The Mindbenders, he enjoyed a #1 hit with Game of Love.

1948–Swiss chemist, Paul Müller, is awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of the insecticidal properties of DDT.

1949–An Air France Lockheed Constellation crashes in the Azores killing all people on board, including the former champion boxer, Marcel Cerdan, and French violinist, Ginette Neveu.

1949–Athlete, (William) Bruce Jenner, is born in Mount Kisco, New York. After intense training, Jenner won the 1976 Olympics decathlon event at the Montreal Olympic Games, gaining fame as "an all-American hero." Previously identifying as male, Jenner revealed her identity as a transgender woman in April 2015, publicly announcing her name change from Bruce to Caitlyn in a July 2015 Vanity Fair cover story. Her name and gender change became official on September 25, 2015. She has been called the most famous openly transgender woman in the world. Jenner was married to actress, Linda Thompson, and Kris Kardashian.

1955–Microsoft Corporation chairman, Bill Gates, is born William Henry Gates III in Seattle, Washington. He would become one of the richest men in the world due his software innovations in the computer world, that being the Microsoft Corporation. Gates is one of the best-known entrepreneurs of the personal computer (PC) revolution. He has been criticized for his business tactics, which have been considered anti-competitive.

1956–Elvis Presley makes his second appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show. He performs Don’t Be Cruel, Love Me Tender, Hound Dog, and Love Me. He also receives a polio vaccination on national TV. This single event is credited with raising immunization levels in the United States from 0.6% to over 80% in just six months.

1956–American rodeo cowboy and Pro Rodeo Hall of Famer, Lewis Feild, is born in Peoa, Utah. He was the Professional Rodeo Cowboys Association All-Around Cowboy 1985-1987.

1958–John XXIII is elected Pope.

1961–Groundbreaking ceremonies are held for the Municipal Stadium at the former site of the New York World’s Fair in Flushing, New York. The name was later changed to Shea Stadium, after New York Commissioner William A. Shea.

1961–According to Beatles legend, it is on this day that a fan named Raymond Jones attempts to purchase the single, My Bonnie, from Brian Epstein’s NEMS record store in Liverpool, England. The story goes that this is the first occasion on which Brian Epstein heard of the single or, indeed, of The Beatles. Mersey Beat editor, Bill Harry, discounts this story as improbable. Harry claims to have discussed The Beatles and other local groups with Epstein well before this date, and he adds that Epstein was already writing record reviews for Mersey Beat and selling copies of the paper in his shop. Further, Epstein was selling tickets to Sam Leach’s “Operation Big Beat” concert, and The Beatles’ name was at the top of the list of groups that were scheduled to appear at the November 10th event.

1962–The Cuban Missile Crisis ends, as Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev orders the removal of Soviet missiles from Cuba.

1962–The Beatles perform at the Empire Theatre, Liverpool. This is a major performance for The Beatles, their first at Liverpool’s top theatre. They are part of an eight-act, big-name program. Heading the bill is Little Richard. Also appearing is Craig Douglas (for whom The Beatles provide musical backing in addition to their own, separate performance), Jet Harris (ex-Shadows bass player), and Kenny Lynch & Sounds Incorporated. In Liverpudlian terms, “The Beatles have hit the big time.”

1964–United State officials deny any involvement in bombing North Vietnam.

1964–The T.A.M.I. Show is filmed in Santa Monica, California, over the next two days. The concert movie features Chuck Berry, The Beach Boys, Smokey Robinson & the Miracles, Marvin Gaye, Jan & Dean, The Supremes, The Rolling Stones, and James Brown. Keen-eyed viewers will spot actress Teri Garr and Mickey singer, Toni Basil, among the dancers.

1965–Nostra aetate, the "Declaration on the Relation of the Church with Non-Christian Religions" of the Second Vatican Council, is promulgated by Pope Paul VI. It absolves the Jews of responsibility for the death of Jesus, reversing Innocent III's 760-year-old declaration.

1967–Actress, Julia (Fiona) Roberts, is born in Smyrna, Georgia. She appeared in the films Satisfaction, Mystic Pizza, Steel Magnolias, Pretty Woman, Flatliners, Sleeping with the Enemy, Dying Young, The Player, The Pelican Brief, I Love Trouble, Something to Talk About, Mary Reilly, Conspiracy Theory, Stepmom, Notting Hill, Erin Brockovich, Ocean’s Eleven, Mona Lisa Smile, Eat Pray Love, and August: Osage County. Her brother is actor, Eric Roberts. She was amarried to singer, Lyle Lovett.

1971–Britain launches the satellite Prospero into low Earth orbit atop a Black Arrow carrier rocket from Launch Area 5B at Woomera, South Australia. England becomes the sixth nation to have a satellite in orbit around the Earth.

1971–By a vote of 356-244, the British House of Commons votes in favor of joining the European Economic Community.

1971–John Lennon and Yoko Ono record Happy Xmas (War Is Over) with the Harlem Community Children’s Choir.

1974–Actor, Joaquin Phoenix, is born Joaquín Rafael Bottom in San Juan, Puerto Rico. He appeared in the films SpaceCamp, Russkies, Parenthood, To Die For, Inventing the Abbotts, U Turn, Return to Paradise, Clay Pigeons, 8mm, The Yards, Gladiator, Quills, Signs, The Village, Ladder 49, Walk the Line, Reservation Road, Two Lovers, The Master, Her, and Irrational Man. His brother was actor, River Phoenix. His brother-in-law is actor, Casey Affleck.

1980–Annette Funicello, Cubby O’Brien, Tommy Cole, Sherry Alberoni, and Dickie Dodd join other Mouseketeers wearing black ears and white shirts on a sound stage in Burbank, California, to celebrate the 25th anniversary of The Mickey Mouse Club.

1981–A play about John Lennon, simply entitled, Lennon, opens at the Everyman Theatre in Liverpool, England.

1982–The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party wins elections, leading to the first Socialist government in Spain after death of Franco. Felipe González becomes Prime Minister-elect.

1983–Cartoonist and animator, Otto (James) Messmer, dies of a heart attack in Fort Lee, New Jersey, at age 91. He co-created “Felix the Cat.” The comic strip is run in syndication in over 250 newspapers all over the world.

1990–The Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic holds the first multiparty legislature election in the country's history.

1995–Two hundred eighty-nine people are killed and 265 are injured in the Baku Metro subway fire in Azerbaijan.

1998–An Air China jetliner is hijacked by disgruntled pilot, Yuan Bin, and flown to Taiwan.

2005–Lewis Libby, Vice-President Dick Cheney's Chief of Staff, is indicted in the Valerie Plame case. Libby resigns later that day.

2006–The funeral service takes place for those executed at Bykivnia forest, outside Kiev, Ukraine. Eight hundred seventeen Ukrainian civilians (out of 100,000) executed by Bolsheviks at Bykivnia in 1930s and 1940s are reburied.

2006–In Dhaka, a group of activists of the Bangladesh Awami League attack a rival political party meeting with oars and sculls, killing 14 people.

2007–Cristina Fernández de Kirchner becomes the first woman to be elected President of Argentina.

2007–Country singer, Porter Wagoner, dies of lung cancer in Nashville, Tennessee, at age 80. Known as “Mr. Grand Ole Opry,” Wagoner charted 81 singles from 1954-1983. His syndicated television series, The Porter Wagoner Show, aired from 1960 to 1981. He was elected to the Country Music Hall of Fame in 2002. Wagoner was instrumental in Dolly Parton her start in the music business.

2009–NASA successfully launches the Ares I-X mission, the only rocket launch for its later-cancelled Constellation program.

2009–A bombing in Peshawar, Pakistan, kills 117 people and wounds 213 others.

2010–Actor, James MacArthur, dies of natural causes in Jacksonville, Florida, at age 72. He is best known for his co-starring role in the TV series Hawaii Five-O. He appeared in the films The Young Stranger, Swiss Family Robinson, The Interns, Spencer’s Mountain, The Truth About Sping, The Bedford Incident, The Love-Ins, The Angry Breed, and Hang ‘Em High.

2013–Five people are killed and 38 are injured after a car crashes into barriers just outside the Forbidden City in Tiananmen Square, Beijing, China.

2014–An unmanned Antares rocket, carrying NASA's Cygnus CRS Orb-3 resupply mission to the International Space Station, explodes seconds after taking off from the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport in Virginia.

2016–Eleven days before the 2016 presidential election, the FBI reopens its investigation of Hillary Clinton, after learning of new emails that it says might be relevant to the investigation. Law enforcement officials say the emails in question were found during the course of an investigation into illicit texts sent to a 15-year-old girl by former congressman, Anthony Weiner, on electronic devices formerly shared by Weiner and his estranged wife, Huma Abedin (personal assistant to Hillary Clinton).

2016–At an annual meeting of the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources in Hobart, Australia, twenty-four countries and the European Union agree to create the world's largest marine park in Antarctica's Ross Sea. The marine park will cover more than 12 percent of the Southern Ocean, and will be protected from commercial fishing for 35 years.

2016–The United Nations reports that 232 civilians have been murdered in and near Mosul, Iraq, by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL).

2016–A fire destroys the historic Royal Clarence Hotel in Exeter, Devon, England, which is described as the oldest hotel in the country.

2017–A "White Lives Matter" gathering takes place in Shelbyville, Tennessee, with over 200 WLM protestors met by over 700 counter-protesters.

2017–At least 19 people are killed and 16 others are injured when a bus skids off the road in the Dhading District and falls into the Trishuli River in central Nepal.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Maxentius; Christian I of Denmark; Prince George of Denmark; the Statue of Liberty; Evelyn Waugh; a Pan Am airplane; Suzy Parker; Lewis Feild; a poster for the T.A.M.I. Show; Lewis Libby; and James MacArthur.

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