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1945–Ten-year-old Elvis Presley performs at the Mississippi-Alabama Fair & Dairy Show's “Children's Day,” held in Tupelo, Mississippi. He sings Old Shep in a competition that is broadcast over WELO Radio. Elvis takes 2nd place, winning $5 and free rides at the carnival.



BC 52–Vercingetorix, leader of the Gauls, surrenders to the Romans under Julius Caesar, ending the siege and Battle of Alesia.

BC 42–Triumvirs, Mark Antony and Octavian, fight a decisive battle with Caesar's assassins, Brutus and Cassius.

382–Roman Emperor Theodosius I concludes a peace treaty with the Goths and settles them in the Balkans in exchange for military service.

1078–Iziaslav I of Kiev dies in battle in Nezhatyna Nyva, at age 54.

1226–Friar and Saint, Francis of Assisi, dies while listening to a reading he had requested of Psalm 142 in Assisi, Umbria, Papal States, at age 44. The next day, the Pope laid the foundation stone for the Basilica of Saint Francis in Assisi. He is known as the patron saint of animals and the environment, and is one of the two patron saints of Italy. He is one of the most venerated religious figures in history.

1283–Dafydd ap Gruffydd, Prince of Gwynedd in Wales, is the first nobleman to be executed by hanging, drawing, and quartering.

1392–Muhammed VII becomes the 12th sultan of the Emirate of Granada.

1568–Elisabeth of Valois dies from a miscarriage in Paris, France, at age 23.

1611–Margaret of Austria, Queen of Spain, dies while giving birth in San Lorenzo de El Escorial, Spain, at age 26.

1656–Military officer, Myles Standish, dies of kidney stones or bladder cancer in Duxbury, Massachusetts, at age 72. He was hired by the Pilgrims as military advisor for Plymouth Colony. One of the Mayflower passengers, Standish played a leading role in the administration and defense of Plymouth Colony from its inception. On February 17, 1621, the Plymouth Colony militia elected him as its first commander, and they continued to re-elect him to that position for the remainder of his life.

1683–The Qing dynasty naval commander, Shi Lang, reaches Taiwan (under the Kingdom of Tungning) after the Battle of Penghuto to receive the formal surrender of Zheng Keshuang and Liu Guoxuan.

1712–The Duke of Montrose issues a warrant for the arrest of Rob Roy MacGregor.

1739–The Treaty of Nis is signed by the Ottoman Empire and Russia at the end of the Russian-Turkish War.

1778–Captain James Cook anchors in Alaska.

1789–George Washington announces the first Thanksgiving Day designated by the national government of the United States of America.

1790–Cherokee Chief, John Ross, is born in Turkeytown, Alabama. In 1838, Ross was forced to lead his people across the Mississippi River to what is now Oklahoma. More than 4,000 Cherokee people died on the demanded march west, which became known as the "Trail of Tears." He was the Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation from 1828 to 1866, serving longer in this position than any other tribal member.

1797–Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany, is born Leopold Johann Joseph Franz Ferdinand Karl in Florence, Italy.

1804–Author, Allan Kardec, is born Hippolyte Léon Denizard Rivail in Lyon, France. He is the author of the five books known as the Spiritist Codification and is the founder of Spiritism. On April 18, 1857, he published his first book on Spiritism, The Spirits' Book, exploring matters concerning the nature of spirits, the spirit world, and the relationship between the spirit world and the material world. This was followed by a series of other books, including The Medium's Book, The Gospel According to Spiritism, Heaven and Hell, and The Genesis According to Spiritism.

1835–The Staedtler company is founded by J.S. Staedtler in Nuremberg, Germany. It is a fine writing instrument company and a manufacturer and supplier of writing, artist, and engineering drawing instruments. The firm produces drafting pencils, propelling pencils, professional pens, and standard wooden pencils. It also produces plastic erasers, rulers, compasses and other drawing/writing accessories.

1838–Tribal leader, Black Hawk, dies in Davis County, Iowa, at age 70. He was a war leader and warrior of the Sauk American Indian tribe, in what is now the Midwest of the United States.

1849–Author, Edgar Allan Poe, is found delirious in a gutter in Baltimore, Maryland, under mysterious circumstances. It is the last time he is seen in public before his death.

1860–Painter and art curator, Rembrandt Peale, dies in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, at age 82. A prolific portrait painter, he was especially acclaimed for his likenesses of presidents George Washington and Thomas Jefferson. Peale's style was influenced by French Neoclassicism, after a stay in Paris, France, in his early thirties.

1863–President Abraham Lincoln declares the last Thursday in November as Thanksgiving Day.

1867–Engineer, Elias Howe, dies of gout in Brooklyn, New York, at age 48. He invented the sewing machine.

1872–Brothers Joseph and Lyman G. Bloomingdale open Bloomingdale’s department store at 938 Third Avenue in New York City.

1873–Tribal leader, Kintpuash, dies in Fort Klamath, Oregon, at age 35. He was a chief of the Modoc tribe of California and Oregon. Kintpuash was the only Native American leader ever to be charged with war crimes, and he was executed by the Army, along with several followers, for their ambush killings of General Edward Canby and Reverend Eleazar Thomas at a peace commission meeting.

1896–Poet, William Morris, dies in Hammersmith, London, England, at age 62. Morris had suffered from epilepsy and tuberculosis for some years, living as an invalid since the early 1890s. In July of 1896, while on a cruise, he started experiencing hallucinations, after which he was bedridden until his death. He was a painter, textile designer, and craftsman, who was seminal in the founding of the Arts & Crafts movement.

1898–Film director and screenwriter, (Thomas) Leo McCarey, is born in Los Angeles, California. While focusing mainly on screwball comedies during the 1930s, McCarey turned towards producing more socially conscious and overtly religious movies during the 1940s, ultimately finding success and acclaim in both genres. His films include Duck Soup, Ruggles of Red Gap, The Awful Truth, Going My Way, The Bells of St. Mary’s, An Affair to Remember, and Rally ‘Round the Flag, Boys!

1900–Novelist and short story writer, Thomas (Clayton) Wolfe, is born in Asheville, North Carolina. He is considered one of the most important American writers of the early 20th century. Wolfe was the author of Look Homeward, Angel, From Death to Morning, and You Can't Go Home Again. Among his many admirers were Jack Kerouac, Ray Bradbury, and William Faulkner, who spoke of Wolfe as the best talent of his generation.

1912–Under the command of Benjamín Zeledón, U.S. forces defeat Nicaraguan rebels at the Battle of Coyotepe Hill.

1913–U.S. Federal Income Tax is signed into law (at 1%).

1915–Film producer, Ray Stark, is born in Chicago, Illinois. His films include The World of Suzie Wong, The Night of the Iguana, This Property Is Condemned, Reflections in a Golden Eye, Funny Girl, The Owl and the Pussycat, Fat City, The Way We Were, The Sunshine Boys, Funny Lady, The Goodbye Girl, Smokey and the Bandit, California Suite, The Electric Horseman, Annie, Steel Magnolias, and Lost in Yonkers.

1916–Veterinarian and author, James Herriot, is born James Alfred Wight in Sunderland, County Durham, England. He wrote All Creatures Great and Small, All Things Bright and Beautiful, and All Things Wise and Wonderful.

1918–King Boris III of Bulgaria acsends to the throne.

1919–Cincinnati Reds pitcher, Adolfo Luque, becomes the first Latin player to appear in a World Series.

1925–Journalist, author, and screenwriter, Gore Vidal, is born Eugene Luther Vidal in West Point, New York. When he was a boy, the biggest influence on his life was his grandfather, Thomas Pryor Gore, Oklahoma's first U.S. Senator. As a political commentator and essayist, Vidal’s principal subject was the history of the United States and its society. His political and cultural essays were published in The Nation, The New Statesman, and Esquire magazines. As a public intellectual, Vidal’s topical debates on sex, politics, and religion, with other public intellectuals and writers, occasionally became continual quarrels with the likes of William F. Buckley, Jr. and Norman Mailer. His works include the plays Visit to a Small Planet and The Best Man; his novels include The City and the Pillar, Myra Breckinridge, and 1876; and his screenplays include The Catered Affair, Ben Hur, Caligula, and Dress Gray.

1928–Futurist, Alvin Toffler, is born in New York, New York. He was known for his works discussing modern technologies, including the digital revolution and the communication revolution, with emphasis on their effects on cultures worldwide. In 1970, his first major book about the future, Future Shock, became a worldwide best-seller and has sold over six million copies.

1929–The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes is renamed to Kingdom of Yugoslavia.

1929–Actress, Jeanne Eagels, dies of an overdose of alcohol and chloral hydrate in New York, New York, at age 39. She was a former Ziegfeld Follies Girl who went on to greater fame on Broadway, and later in films. She appeared in the films Man, Woman, and Sin, The Letter, and Jealousy.

1930–The German Socialist Labour Party in Poland-Left is founded following a split in the German Socialist Labour Party of Poland (DSAP).

1932–Iraq gains independence from the United Kingdom.

1935–In the second Italo-Abyssinian War, Italy invades Ethiopia, under General de Bono.

1936–Football player and coach, John Heisman, dies in New York, New York, at age 66. He was a coach of football, basketball, and baseball. He served as the head football coach at Oberlin College, Buchtel College (present-day University of Akron), Auburn University, Clemson University, Georgia Tech, the University of Pennsylvania, Washington & Jefferson College, and Rice University. The Heisman Trophy, awarded annually to the season's most outstanding college football player, is named after him.

1938–Rock ‘n’ roller, Eddie Cochran, is born Edward Raymond Cochran in Albert Lea, Minnesota. His hits include the rockabilly songs Twenty Flight Rock, C'mon Everybody, Somethin' Else, and Summertime Blues. His image as a sharply dressed and good-looking young man with a rebellious attitude, epitomized the stance of the 1950s rocker, and due to his early death he achieved an iconic status.

1941–The film, The Maltese Falcon, directed by John Huston and starring Humphrey Bogart, opens in New York.

1941–Singer, Chubby Checker, is born Ernest Evans in Spring Gully, South Carolina. He is best known for popularizing the twist dance craze, with his 1960 hit cover of Hank Ballard's R&B hit The Twist. He also popularized the Limbo Rock and its trademark limbo dance. Extraordinarily, he had 22 “Top 40” hits other than The Twist. Among those hits are The Hucklebuck, Pony Time, Let’s Twist Again, and Slow Twisting.

1941–Record producer, Lenny Waronker, is born Leonard Waronker in Los Angeles, California. He became president of Warner/Reprise in 1989, and produced albums by Van Dyke Parks, Ry Cooder, Arlo Guthrie, Randy Newman, The Doobie Brothers, Gordon Lightfoot, Little Feat, The Beau Brummels, James Taylor, Eric Clapton, Brian Wilson, and Rufus Wainwright. He was married to singer, Donna Loren.

1945–Ten-year-old Elvis Presley performs at the Mississippi-Alabama Fair & Dairy Show's “Children's Day,” held in Tupelo, Mississippi. He sings Old Shep in a competition that is broadcast over WELO Radio. Elvis takes 2nd place, winning $5 and free rides at the carnival.

1942–The first successful launch of a V-2/A4-rocket from Test Stand VII at Peenemünde, Germany is made. It is the first man-made object to reach space.

1947–Businessman, Fred DeLuca, is born in Brooklyn, New York. He co-founded the popular Subway sandwich shops. The first shop opened on August 28, 1965, in Bridgeport, Connecticut. In 1978, Subway’s 100th store opened, and the company reached the 1,000 store mark in 1987. As of June 2013, the company has 39,500 franchised locations worldwide and produces $9.05 billion in sales every year.

1949–WERD, the first black-owned radio station in the United States, opens in Atlanta, Georgia.

1949–Lindsey (Adams) Buckingham, of Fleetwood Mac, is born in Palo Alto, California. Aside from his tenure with Fleetwood Mac, Buckingham has also released six solo albums and three live albums.

1950–During the Korean War, the First Battle of Maryang San begins, pitting Australian and British forces against communist China.

1951–Singer, Keb' Mo', is born Kevin Roosevelt Moore in South Los Angeles, California. His post-modern blues style is influenced by many eras and genres, including folk, rock, jazz, and pop. The moniker "Keb Mo" was coined by his original drummer, Quentin Dennard, and picked up by his record label as a "street talk" abbreviation of his given name.

1952–The United Kingdom successfully tests a nuclear weapon to become the world's third nuclear power.

1954–Minister and talk show host, Al Sharpton, is born Alfred Charles Sharpton Jr. in Brooklyn, New York. He is also a civil rights activist, known to stir up the pot of race relations in America.

1954–Blues guitarist, Stevie Ray Vaughan, is born in Dallas, Texas. In spite of a short-lived mainstream career spanning only seven years, he is widely considered one of the most influential electric guitarists in the history of blues music, and one of the most important figures in the revival of blues in the 1980s.

1955–Two kiddie shows make their debut: Captain Kangaroo and The Mickey Mouse Club. The latter’s sign off song ended in “M-I-C... see you real soon; K-E-Y... why? because we like you; M-O-U-S-E.”

1956–Actor, Hart (Matthew) Bochner, is born in Toronto, Canada. He appeared in the films Islands in the Stream, Breaking Away, Rich and Famous, Making Mr. Right, Die Hard, and Bulworth.

1957–The California State Superior Court rules that Allen Ginsberg's Howl and Other Poems is not obscene.

1959–Comedian, Greg Proops, is born Gregory Everett Proops in Phoenix, Arizona. He is best known for his work as an improvisational comedian on the U.K. and U.S. versions of the TV series Whose Line Is It Anyway?

1959–Actor, Jack Wagner, is born John Wagner in Washington, Missouri. He is best known for his roles on the soap operas General Hospital, Santa Barbara, The Bold and the Beautiful, and Melrose Place.

1960–The Beatles perform at the Indra Club, Grosse Freiheit, Hamburg, West Germany. This will be their final night at the Indra, which is closed by the police when neighbors complain about the noise. The Beatles are moved to Bruno Koschmider’s top club, The Kaiserkeller.

1960–The Andy Griffith Show debuts on CBS-TV.

1961–The Dick Van Dyke Show debuts on CBS-TV. This innovative and well-scripted show gave a nod to both rock ‘n’ roll with “The Twizzle,” and the British Invasion, with a guest appearance by Chad & Jeremy as “The Red Coats.”

1962–In Project Mercury, Sigma 7 is launched from Cape Canaveral, with astronaut Wally Schirra aboard, for a six-orbit, nine-hour flight.

1962–Tommy Lee, drummer for Mötley Crüe, is born Thomas Lee Bass in Athens, Greece. He was married to actresses, Heather Locklear and Pamela Anderson.

1963–A violent coup in Honduras pre-empts the upcoming October 13th election, ends a period of reform, and begins two decades of military rule.

1964–The Beatles tape a performance for the American TV series Shindig!, with recording taking place at the independent Granville Studio in London, England. For the taping, they perform live before a studio audience of Beatles Fan Club members. This will be broadcast in the U.S. by ABC-TV on October 7th, but it is never aired in the U.K.

1964–Actor, Clive Owen, is born in Coventry, Warwickshire, England. His career began with British television and film. He is best known for his role in Gosford Park (with co-stars Maggie Smith, Helen Mirren, Kristin Scott Thomas, Michael Gambon, and Ryan Phillippe). He appeared in the films The Bourne Identity, Beyond Borders, I’ll Sleep When I’m Dead, Closer, King Arthur, Blood Ties, and Words and Pictures.

1965–Actor, Zachary Scott, dies of a brain tumor in Austin, Texas, at age 51. He appeared in the films Hollywood Canteen, Mildred Pierce, Whiplash, Flamingo Road, Colt .45, Bandito, and The Young One.

1966–Singer-songwriter, Dave Lambert, of the trio Lambert, Hendricks & Ross, dies in automobile accident on the Connecticut Turnpike, at age 49. He was a jazz lyricist and an originator of vocalese. Lambert spent a lifetime experimenting with the human voice, and expanding the possibilities of its use within jazz.

1967–Folksinger, Woody Guthrie, dies of Huntington's disease in New York, New York, at age 55. His best known song is This Land Is Your Land.

1969–Singer, Gwen (Renée) Stefani, is born in Fullerton, California. She is the co-founder and lead vocalist of the rock band No Doubt. Stefani was a coach Seasons 7 and 9 on the singing competition series The Voice. She was married to musician, Gavin Rossdale.

1969–Blues guitarist, Skip James, dies in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, at age 67.

1970–Former Cream bassist, Jack Bruce, joins ex-Miles Davis sidemen, John McLaughlin, Larry Young, and Tony Williams to form one of the first jazz-rock fusion groups, Lifetime.

1971–Kevin (Scott) Richardson, of the Backstreet Boys, is born in Lexington, Kentucky.

1973–Actress, Neve (Adrianne) Campbell, is born in Guelph, Ontario, Canada. She appeared in the films The Craft, Scream, Wild Things, 54, Panic, The Company, and Relative Strangers.

1979–Josh (Adam) Klinghoffer, of Red Hot Chili Peppers, is born in Los Angeles, California. He replaced his friend and frequent collaborator, John Frusciante, in 2009, after a period of being a touring member.

1981–After seven months and 10 deaths, the hunger strike by Provisional Irish Republican Army and Irish National Liberation Army prisoners at the Maze Prison in Northern Ireland, comes to an end.

1984–Singer, Ashlee (Nicolle) Simpson, is born in Waco, Texas. She is the younger sister of singer, Jessica Simpson.

1985–The Space Shuttle Atlantis makes its maiden flight.

1986–TASCC, a superconducting cyclotron at the Chalk River Laboratories, is officially opened.

1988–The documentary, Imagine: John Lennon, compiled from more than 240 hours of unreleased film footage, premieres in Westwood, California.

1990–The German Democratic Republic ceases to exist and its territory becomes part of the Federal Republic of Germany. East German citizens become part of the European Community, which will later become the European Union.

1993–A firefight occurs during a failed attempt to capture key officials of warlord Mohamed Farrah Aidid's organisation in Mogadishu, Somalia, killing 18 American soldiers and over 350 Somalis.

1994–Character actor, Dub Taylor, dies of a heart attack in Los Angeles, California, at age 87. He appeared in the films Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, Them!, No Time for Sergeants, Auntie Mame, A Hole in the Head, Parrish, Sweet Bird of Youth, Spencer’s Mountain, The Cincinnati Kid, Bonnie and Clyde, The Wild Bunch, Junior Bonner, Thunderbolt and Lightfoot, and Falling from Grace.

1995–O.J. Simpson is acquitted of the murders of Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Goldman.

1998-Actor, Roddy McDowall, dies of lung cancer in Los Angeles, California, at age 70. He began his acting career as a child in England, and then in America, in How Green Was My Valley, My Friend Flicka, and Lassie Come Home. He also appeared in the films Midnight Lace, The Longest Day, Cleopatra, Shock Treatment, The Greatest Story Ever Told, Inside Daisy Clover, Lord Love a Duck, Planet of the Apes, 5 Card Stud, The Poseidon Adventure, Dead of Winter, and Overboard.

1999–Businessman, Akio Morita, dies in Tokyo, Japan, at age 78. He co-founded the Sony Corporation. Sony developed magnetic recording tape and sold the first tape recorder in Japan; they produced a pocket-sized radio (the first to be fully transistorized); they released the first Betamax home video recorder, a year before VHS format was developed; and they developed the Walkman and Discman.

2000–Benjamin Orr, bass player for The Cars, dies of pancreatic cancer in Atlanta, Georgia, at age 53. He sang lead on several of their best known songs, including Just What I Needed, Bye Bye Love, Moving In Stereo, Let's Go, It's All I Can Do, and Drive.

2002–Director and producer, Bruce Paltrow, dies from oral cancer and pneumonia in Rome, Italy, at age 58. He produced the television shows The White Shadow and St. Elsewhere. His films include A Little Sex and Duets.

2004–Actress, Janet Leigh, dies of a heart attack in Los Angeles, California, at age 77. She is best known for her role in the Alfred Hitchcock thriller Psycho. She appeared in the films Words and Music, Little Women, Holiday Affair, Angels in the Outfield, The Naked Spur, Houdini, Walking My Baby Back Home, Living It Up, Pete Kelley’s Blues, My Sister Eileen, Touch of Evil, Who Was That Lady?, The Manchurian Candidate, and Bye Bye Birdie.

2008–The Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 for the U.S. financial system is signed by President George W. Bush.

2009–The presidents of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Turkey sign the Nakhchivan Agreement on the Establishment of Turkic Council.

2013–At least 134 migrants are killed when their boat sinks near the Italian island of Lampedusa.

2013–The Gambia withdraws from the Commonwealth of Nations.

2016–The U.S. Supreme Court declines to rehear President Barack Obama's 2014 plan (Deferred Action for Parents of Americans) to spare from deportation millions of immigrants in the country illegally; a case in which the justices split 4-4 in June. That decision is final.

2016–Russian President Vladimir Putin suspends the 2000 treaty with the United States on cleaning up weapons-grade plutonium.

2016–Facebook launches a new online "Marketplace," allowing members of the huge social network to buy from and sell to each other. The new feature puts Facebook squarely in competition with local online selling platforms led by Craigslist, and offers an alternative to auction markets such as eBay.

2016–Bass Pro Shops acquires Cabela's for $5.5 billion, combining the two retailers for outdoor enthusiasts.


PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Vercingetorix, leader of the Gauls, surrenders to Julius Caesar; Myles Standish; Allan Kardec; a Thanksgiving dinner; Leo McCarey; All Things Great and Small by James Herriot; Jeanne Eagels; a poster for The Maltese Falcon; Fred DeLuca at one of his Subway locations; The Mickey Mouse Club; the stars of The Andy Griffith Show; Zachary Scott; Neve Campbell; artwork for Imagine: John Lennon; Roddy McDowall; and Janet Leigh.

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